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  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: ATP is thought to be a fast neurotransmitter in the medial habenula region of the brain, and may be coreleased with other transmitters, for example with glutamase in the hippocampus. We monitored ATP release in rat brain slices using the bioluminescent indicator system luciferin—luciferase. Electrical stimulation of the hippocampus, cerebellum or habenula led to ATP release, but this release was calcium-independent and was not blocked by tetrodotoxin, or by other agents found to block ATP release from red blood cells. Although calcium-dependent ATP release may occur in response to electrical stimulation, it appears to be overwhelmed by calcium-independent release, which may result from electroporation of cells close to the stimulating electrode. Consistent with this, uptake into cells of the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow was promoted by electrical stimulation. Our data undermine a previous suggestion, based on use of the luciferin-luciferase technique, that ATP is synaptically released with glutamate in the hippocampus.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In order to identify more specific or selective mast cell markers, the reactivity of two monoclonal antibodies, Ki-MC1 and Ki-M1P, was studied by immunohistochemistry in two human cell lines (mast cell line HMC-1, basophilic cell line KU812), in mast cells cultured from blood precursors, in adherent mononuclear cells from peripheral blood, and in mast cells of tissue sections from 1 3 urticaria pigmentosa lesions, live mastocytomas and live normal skin specimens. Toluidine blue staining, fluorescence staining with FITC-conjugated avidin, and immunohistochemical staining (APAAP) with other mast cell reactive monoclonal antibodies, was performed for comparison. Double staining with the APAAP method, using the Ki-antibodies and toluidine blue, was also carried out. Both Ki-antibodies showed reactivity for skin mast cells, but with a different staining pattern. In addition, the Ki-MC1 antibody did not react with the cell lines, and reacted only with a few peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cultured mast cells. In contrast, the Ki-M1P antibody reacted with almost all cultured mast cells and blood mononuclear cells, but stained only about one-half of lesional and one-fifth of normal skin mast cells. Ki-M1P also reacted with many toluidine blue-negative dermal cells, particularly in urticaria pigmentosa. Ki-MC1 antibody can thus be considered as a useful additional marker for normal skin mast cells. In contrast, the Ki-M1 P antibody primarily identifies immature mast cells and monocytes/macrophages, suggesting that these cell types probably originate from the same bone marrow precursor.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 133 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: As urticarial lesions involve tissue invasion by inflammatory cells, and as β2-integrins play a central part in adhesion of leucocytes to endothelia, allowing their migration into the tissues, we have explored the distribution and sequential expression of these molecules in tissue sections from different forms of urticaria.Prick test weals (of 10 min duration) to common inhalant allergens showed only a minor increase of CD18, whereas in a case of cold urticaria CD11b and CD18 molecules were increasingly upregulated within the first 30 min after elicitation of the lesions. Skin test sites in delayed pressure urticaria, and urticarial esions (〉 6 h duration) of acute and chronic recurrent urticaria also showed marked upregulation of CD11b and CD18, and to a lesser extent of CD11a, but this did not strongly correlate with the intensity of the mixed cellular infiltrate. Non-lesional skin showed expression of β2-integrins in chronic urticaria, delayed pressure urticaria, and less so in acute urticaria, suggesting generalized leucocyte activation. This analysis of integrins thus suggests an early and extensive involvement of these molecules in the pathological events associated with the evolution of urticarial lesions.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Contact dermatitis 8 (1982), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Eleven years experience of textile finish resin patch testing of suspected textile dermatitis patients revealed 15 cases of allergic textile dematitis among 428 patients tested. Ten of the 15 patients had a relevant positive patch test to one or more of a limited series of textile finishes; 1 was negative and 4 were not tested with textile finishes. All 15 patients were formaldehyde sensitive. No unexpected, relevant, positive textile finish resin patch test was found. In this study a negative patch test to formaldehyde virtually excluded allergic contact dermatitis from textile finishes.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Contact dermatitis 11 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Chlorocresol is a biocide with widespread use in industry and pharmaceutical products. It is an occasional human contact sensitizer.The sensitizing potential of chlorocresol was judged strong using the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and doubtful in the less sensitive open epicutaneous test (OET). When different induction concentrations were used, the results indicated an optimal sensitizing concentration above which no further increase in the sensitization rate occurred. Re challenge 2 weeks later showed a marked decrease in sensitivity.Consecutive human patch tests with chlorocresol 2% in pet. showed 11 reactions among 1462 patients tested, but none were explainable and reproducible during re-tests and provocative use tests, indicating that the GPMT overestimated the sensitization potential.The results from guinea pig allergy tests cannot stand alone but have to be validated by other sources of information.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Immunological reviews 108 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-065X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Haas N, Hamann K, Grabbe J, Niehus J, Kunkel G, Kolde G, Czarnetzki M. Demonstration of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcɛRI) on Langerhans' cells of diseased nasal mucosa.Langerhans' cells in the skin have recently been shown to bind IgE molecules via the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcɛRI). Using two highly specific antibodies against the antibody-binding α-chain of this receptor, 29C6 and 6F7, we demonstrate by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy that Langerhans' cells of diseased nasal mucosa can express the FcɛRI. Tissue sections from hyperplastic nasal conchae and nasal polyps of atopic and nonatopic patients have shown no basic differences in epithelial FcɛRII-bearing cells. Only a few cells expressed the low-affinity IgE receptor (FcɛRII) (Tül antibody) in some sections. These findings suggest that Langerhans' cells play an important role in the induction of transepithelial IgE-mediated allergy and in the mediation of inflammation of the nasal mucosa via their FcɛRI.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1745-4514
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Myosin heavy chain (MHC) content of cooked gels of pollock and croaker surimi decreased during preincubation (“setting”) at temperatures ranging from 4–50C. Decreases in MHC content were attributed to either nondisulfide covalent cross-linking or proteolysis. Depending upon which process dominated at a given temperature, formation of stronger or weaker gels occurred, respectively. Maximum production of cross-linked polymers occurred at the optimum setting temperatures, i.e., at 25C for pollock surimi and 40C for croaker surimi. Subsequent cooking of these set gels at 90C decreased the amount of cross-linked polymers formed at the optimum setting temperature. Addition of free lysine-HCl inhibited formation of cross-linked polymers of MHC during setting and the increase in cooked gel strength for both species. This supports published evidence that cross-linking of MHC during setting may be of the ε-amino-(γ-glutamyl) lysine I type, mediated by a transglutaminase enzyme.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1440-0960
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Primary cutaneous cryptococcal infection is uncommon. The cutaneous manifestations are most often the result of dissemination from the central nervous system or lung, usually in an immunocompromised host; cellulitis is regarded as the rarest cutaneous form. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis has occasionally been reported in the immunocompetent, the causative organism being Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans. We present a case of cellulitis of the right arm in a 75-year-old man caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, a fungus which is endemic in Australia and an important cause of infection in the immunocompetent This is the first case described of a primary cutaneous infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii The interesting ecology of this organism is discussed.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: For rice kernels uniaxial compressive modulus function, the time-temperature and time-moisture content shift factors, the bulk compressive creep modulus, the uniaxial compressive stress relaxation modulus, and the uniaxial compressive failure stress were experimentally determined, while the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio were calculated from the available experimental data.Uniaxial compression tests were carried out at deformation rates of 0.254.0.0508 and 0.0127 cm per min for five temperatures in 11C increments from 25 to 69C for each of the four moisture levels of 12, 17, 22 and 29% (d.b.). Stress relaxation and bulk compression tests were performed at the same four moisture levels and at the temperature of 25C.Master curves for uniaxial compressive modulus and failure strength were developed as functions of reduced time where the temperature and moisture effects were transformed to equivalent time effects by the method of reduced variables. the brown rice kernel was found to have only one time-temperature and one time-moisture shift function showing that the material is thermo- and hydro-rheologically simple.
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