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  • 1
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Ischaemia was induced by 5 min of deprivation of glucose and an additional 5 min of deprivation of glucose and oxygen from Mg2+-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid in vitro.2. During the ischaemic period, 11 ± 1.5% of the total [3H]-dopamine ([3H]-D A) was released into the incubation medium.3. Ischaemia-evoked release of [3H]-DA from striatal slices was attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX), MgSO4, dizocilpine, ketamine, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), or carbetapentane.4. Release of [3H]-DA was attenuated by verapamil, ω-conotoxin GVIA and dantrolene.5. Nomifensin inhibited the ischaemia-induced release of [3H]-DA.6. Omission of Ca2+ from incubation media potentiated ischaemia-evoked [3H]-DA release. The inhibitory effect of nomifensin was potentiated in Ca2+-free incubation media.7. These results suggest that ischaemia induces release of [3H]-DA by dual mechanisms; one is Ca2+-dependent exocytosis and the other is reversal of transporter.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Meat beads containing glucose precursor of a chemical marker and alginate beads containing spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus were prepared and subjected to steam heating at HOC for selected time intervals. Marker yields were related to spore survivor data and lethality values obtained from time-temperature data to generate calibration curves. Meat balls, fabricated with meat (marker precursor) and alginate (microbial spores) beads placed at the center, were heated at 110 ± 0.5C for selected time intervals (0–55 min) in a continuous flow holding tube. During the heat treatment, the panicles were held stationary in the holding tube while the carrier fluid (0.5% CMC solution) was circulated at 2.6 gallons per min. Transient time-temperature responses of the particles were recorded at bead locations during test runs. All treated samples were analyzed for marker yield as well as spore survivors. Using the calibration curves and marker yield data under test conditions, the corresponding spore count reduction and accumulated lethalities were computed. Lethalities and spore count reductions calculated from marker yield data showed good correlations with those obtained from the experiment. The results indicate that the chemical marker has good potential to provide data on accumulated lethality and spore count reductions. Prior to extension of this approach to aseptic processing conditions, additional kinetic data on spore destruction and marker formation should be gathered at temperatures applicable to these processes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Lethality within food particles undergoing ohmic heating was investigated using microbiological and chemical marker measurements. Meatballs containing spores of B. stearothermophilus and precursors of chemical markers were thermally processed in a starch solution with 30–40% solids content using a 5 kilowatt (kW) ohmic system. Different temperatures, flow rates, holding tube lengths, and fluid electrical conductivities were used. Lethalities observed under various processing conditions were consistent with predictions. Higher lethality was observed, microbiologically and chemically, at the center of the meatballs rather than near the surface. A good correlation between the marker yield and the bacterial survivor population was obtained under various processing conditions. The results indicate that the chemical markers may be used to evaluate the distribution of lethality among different particles and the contribu-
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 54 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The volatile flavor compounds in glassine packages were characterized using headspace concentration technique and GC/MS. The major compounds identified were 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol, 3,3-di-methyl-4-hydroxybutanal, and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol diacetate. Compounds representing hydrocarbons, alcohols, and phthalates were also identified. The majority of these compounds could be attributed to residues from the lacquer applied to the glassine paper as a curable coating.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 53 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A highly sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of ascorbic acid in foods and beverages was developed. Ascorbic acid was extracted with 0.lM H2SO4/ 0.01% EDTA solution, separated on an anion exclusion column and detected amperometrically with a platinum electrode operating at +0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Excellent correlation was observed among results obtained by ion exclusion chromatography with either electrochemical or UV detection and by the AOAC 2,6-di-chloroindophenol titrimetric method. Ion exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection was more sensitive and specific for ascorbic acid than the other two methods.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 52 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Two phytase isoenzymes were isolated from 8-day germinated canola cv Regent. Gel filtration chromatography of an ammonium sulfate fractionated extract on Sephadex G-100 produced one peak with phytase activity. The phytase fraction was separated into two isoenzymes by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The optimum pH was 4.5–5.0 and 5.0 for the phytase isoenzymes 1 and 2, respectively. Both isoenzymes exhibited maximum activity at 50°C. Km values at pH 5.0 were 0.36 and 0.25 mM for phytase 1 and 2 isoenzymes, respectively, while molecular weight determination showed both fraction were identical with a molecular weight of 70,100 ± 4,000 daltons.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 51 (1986), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A sensitive and selective analytical technique for the determination of free and total sulfites in food was developed using ion chromatography with electrochemical detection. Free and total sulfites in three dehydrated foods were analyzed by extraction of the sulfites at pH 2.0 and 8.9, respectively, and separation on an anion exclusion column with 5 mM H2SO4, pH 2, solution as eluant. Using an electrochemical detector set at + 0.40 volts vs Ag/AgCl electrode, sulfites equivalent to 0.1 ppm SO2 in the extract could be detected with detector response linear up to 6 ppm SO2.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 49 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: As determined by high performance liquid chromatography, (-)- epicatechin concentrations among freshly harvested beans of verified genetic origin ranged from 21.89–43.27 mg/g of dry defatted samples. Fermented beans showed much lower concentrations (2–10 mg). During fermentation, a trend towards decrease in (-)-epicatechin content was observed. Commercial beans from areas with reputations for shipping well-fermented products contained lower levels of (-)-epicatechin than beans from regions where fermentation is less extensive.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 48 (1983), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for analysis of (-)epicatechin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavan) in cocoa beans is described. Bean samples were extracted in 80% acetone with subsequent sample clean-up on a Waters Associates C18 SEPPAK. Separation of (-)-epicatechin was accomplished on a μBondapak C18 column using a mobile phase of water:methanol:acetic acid (87:8:5). (-)-Epicatechin was detected at 280 nm and quantified by comparing peak height of sample to those of standards. The method demonstrated excellent reproducibility and recoveries of added (-)epicatechin averaged over 90%. UV scans and mass spectrometric anlaysis of collected eluate from the chromatograph provided positive identification of the compound in cocoa bean extracts.
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