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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (8)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cyanobacterial mats developed on fine sandy sediments of the upper littoral of the island of Mellum (North Sea). Freshly colonized sediment was dominated by the non-heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limosa. Well established mats in which the cosmopolitan cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes was the dominant organism also usually contained O. limosa as a minor component. This mat was about 1 mm thick and contained high biomass. Photosynthesis was maximal at about 150 μm depth and reached values of 280 μmol oxygen. 1−1 ? min−1. On the other hand, in the dark, high respiratory activity turned the mat anaerobic within minutes. Freshly colonized sediment consisted of low cyanobacterial biomass loosely attached to the sand grains and present up to a depth of 2.5 mm. Respiratory activity was low and the sediment remained aerobic to a depth of 2 mm throughout the night. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) was measured during 24-h periods in both types of mats in order to elucidate interactions with oxygenic photosynthesis and oxygen concentration. Acetylene reduction in the mats showed very different diurnal patterns which depended on the type of mat investigated and the time of year. The results indicated that a temporary separation of oxygenic photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation occurred in the mat. Established mats fixed nitrogen predominantly during the transition from dark to light and vice versa, when oxygenic photosynthesis was reduced or absent. Freshly colonized sediment-fixed nitrogen throughout the night but often a stimulation was seen at dawn. The latter showed much higher specific activities than the established type. Also in spring, specific activities were much higher.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Black reduced sediment surfaces (Black Spots) in sandy intertidal flats of the German Wadden Sea (southern North Sea) are characterised by elevated sulphide concentrations (up to 20 mM) and low redox potentials. It is assumed that the appearance of Black Spots is linked to elevated levels of organic matter content within the sediments. In order to establish the effect of high substrate and sulphide concentrations on the heterotrophic microbial communities in Black Spot sediments, bacterial abundances and the potential C-source utilisation patterns of microbial communities were compared in natural and artificially induced Black Spots and unaffected control sites. Bacterial numbers were estimated by direct counts and the most probable number technique for different physiological groups, while patterns of C-substrate utilisation of entire aerobic microbial communities were assessed using the Biolog™ sole-carbon-source-catabolism assay. Bacterial abundances at Black Spot sites were increased, with increases in mean cell numbers, more disperse data distributions and more extreme values. Substrate utilisation patterns of aerobic microbial communities were significantly different in Black Spot sediment slurries, showing diminished richness (number of C-sources catabolised) and substrate diversity (Shannon diversity index) in comparison to unaffected sites. Principal component analysis clearly discriminated Black Spot utilisation patterns from controls and indicated that microbial communities in individual Black Spot sites are functionally diverse and differ from communities in oxidised surface sediments and reduced subsurface sediments at control sites. This work suggests that potentially negative effects on microbial communities in Black Spot sediments, through anoxia and high sulphide concentrations, are balanced by the stimulating influence of substrate availability, leading to comparable or higher bacterial numbers, but lower functional microbial diversity of aerobic microbial communities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 62 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Salterns in the Bretagne (France), exhibiting different stages of salinity of 5% to 33% evolved up to 0.7 mmol methane per m2 per day. Methane concentrations of up to 0.4 mM were found. High methane evolution rates and increased methane concetration were restricted to basins of up to 7% and more than 15% salinity, and to the upper 10 cm of the sediments, where high sulfate concentrations (50 to 100 mM) occurred as well. Basins of 10–15% salinity exhibited only low methane evolution rates (less than 0.05 mmol methane per m2 per day) and low methane concentrations (less than 0.02 mM). Gas bubbles arising during times of increased photosynthetic activity from the microbial mats covering the sediments of the saltern basins contained up to 2% methane. Addition of methylated amines and methanol, but not of H2/CO2, formate or acetate, to sediments slurries from basins of up to 12% salinity resulted in a rapid enrichment of methanogenic populations. Enriched methanogenic bacteria did not grow at salinities exceeding 15% or temperatures exceeding 45°C, and showed characteristics similar to those documented for Methanococcus halophilus and strain SF1 (DSM 3243). No enrichments were obtained from basins of more than 20% salinity in spite of methane being produced and evolved from those basins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 25 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Enrichment studies on microbial mat sediments (potential stromatolites) from the hypersaline Solar Lake (Sinai) indicated high numbers of methanogenic bacteria (up to 105 ml−1 sediment) in spite of the high sulfate reduction rate, sulfate concentration and salinity. Among H2/CO2, acetate and monomethylamine, the methylated amine was the preferred substrate. The predominant species enriched was a Methanosarcina sp. The findings indicate that methanogenic bacteria play an important role in hypersaline sulfate-enriched anoxic sediments and stromatolithic microbial mats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A saltern near La Baule (Bretagne, France) was remodeled in a programmable temperature and humidity controlled walk-in environmental chamber resembling the characteristics of the original saltern. The saltern showed different types of microbial mats predominantly composed of algae, oxy- and anoxyphotobacteria, and associated chemoorganotrophic bacteria, fungi and animals. Well-developed microbial mats were found up to a salinity of 10% during the three or four months in summer when salinity gradients and NaCl precipitation were established. The main phototrophic organisms were diatoms, the cyanobacteria Aphanothece, Microcoleus, Spirulina, and Oscillatoria, and Chromatiaceae. At higher salinity, Halobacterium sp., diatoms, and Dunaliella were dominant. Typical microbial mats and saltern-typical invertebrate, algal and bacterial species also developed in the saltern model, building up a stable community. The ionic composition of the brines and physicochemical parameters were similar to those determined for the original saltern. Different photosynthetic organisms, e.g. a filamentous purple bacterium and a hypersaline Chloroflexus-like organism, could be enriched within the microbial mats by changing the light regime.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 31 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Vertically stratified microbial communities of phototrophic bacteria in the upper intertidal zones of the North Sea island of Mellum were investigated. Growth and population dynamics of the cyanobacterial mat were followed over three successive years. It was concluded that the initial colonization of the sandy sediments was by the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria. In well-established mats, however, the dominant organism was Microcoleus chthonoplastes. The observed succession of cyanobacteria during mat development is correlated with nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation is necessary in this low-nutrient environment to ensure colonization by mat-constructing cyanobacteria. Under certain conditions, a red layer of purple sulfur bacteria developed underneath the cyanobacterial mat in which Chromatium and Thiocapsa spp. dominated, but Thiopedia and Ectothiorhodospira spp. have also been observed. Measurements of light penetrating the cyanobacterial mat indicated that sufficient light is available for the photosynthetic growth of purple sulfur bacteria. Profiles of oxygen, sulfide and redox potential within the microbial mat were measured using microelectrodes. Maximum oxygen concentrations, measured at a depth of 0.7 mm, reached levels more than twice the normal air saturation. Dissolved sulfide was not detected by the microelectrodes. Determination of acid-distilled sulfide, however, revealed appreciable amounts of bound sulfide in the mat. Redox profiles measured in the mat led to the conclusion that the upper 10 mm of the sedimentary sequence is in a relatively oxidized state.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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