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  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have independently in our two laboratories re-examined the report by Stanton and Sejnowski (Nature, 339, 215 – 218, 1989) that single stimuli to a test pathway in area CA1 of the hippocampal slice, when delivered between short bursts of stimuli to a second, convergent pathway, produce an associative long-term depression (LTD) in the test pathway. While robust associative LTP was observed when stimuli to the two inputs were correlated in time, the anti-correlation procedure failed to induce LTD; rather, a trend towards potentiation was observed. This result was obtained using both submerged and interface chambers, and in two different strains of rat. A transient depression lasting for a few minutes could usually be elicited by strong tetanic stimulation; this depression was not restricted to activated pathways.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An extruded mixture of mechanically deboned turkey and white corn flour was used as a model system to study the thermal inactivation and injury of Clostridium sporogenes spores. Thermal inactivation was observed at 93.3C (2 log10 reductions) and 115.6C (4–5 log10 reductions). Statistical analyses showed that significant difference in thermal inactivation of spores occurred between the extrusion temperatures (P 〈 0.05). C. sporogenes spore counts of the extruded sample from a rich protein medium (Brewer Anaerobic Agar) were significantly greater than those from a limiting growth medium (Nutrient Agar) (P 〈 0.05), indicating that spores surviving severe heat treatments required nutrients not required by unheated spores. C. sporogenes spores counts of the extruded sample decreased after 1 and 2 weeks of storage under refrigeration conditions. the overall bacteriological quality of the extruded mixture of mechanically deboned turkey and white corn flour was excellent (0 spore/g in both Brewer Anaerobic Agar and Nutrient Agar).
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The flow theory in an extruder is fundamental to the study of extrusion technology. Present analytical solutions of the flow theory used in many studies give significant overpredictions of the volumetric flow rate due to erroneous boundary conditions used. Modified flat plate models with and without considering side wall effect and a coaxial cylinder model for Newtonian fluids were derived in this study using new boundary conditions confirmed by Choo et al. (1980). Using experimental data from published literature, it was found that the volumetric flow rates in the extruder were better predicted by these models than the numerical solutions or the original analytical solutions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The two-dimensional flow theory of a power law fluid in a fully-wiped co-rotating twin-screw extruder was investigated under steady-state, isothermal conditions. The important distinction between this approach and previously published theories (Denson and Hwang 1980; Booy 1980; Wang and White 1989; Lai-Fook et al. 1989, 1991) is that actual boundary conditions were used instead of boundary conditions based on the parallel plate model developed for single screw extruders. The generalized screw curves constructed for both double-lead and single-lead screw elements were similar in shape to those published for single screw extruders with rectangular channels. Noticeable increases in the closed discharge pressure and the open discharge flow rate were observed, which are the result of the screw geometry. Experimental results with corn meal were in agreement with theoretical predictions for single-lead screw elements. Theoretical predictions for double-lead screw elements using the new solution also showed reasonable agreement with experimental data from published literature after the incorporation of the intermeshing effect.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1745-4581
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The objective of this research was to develop an automated system using image processing and statistical modeling techniques to identify and enumerate bacteria on slides containing Salmonella typhimurium. Pictures of bacterial cells were acquired with a CCD camera attached to a motorized fluorescence microscope. A shape boundary modeling technique, based on the use of circular autoregressive model parameters, was used. A minimum-distance classifier was trained with ten images belonging to each shape class (rod shape and circle shape). Experimental results showed that the model parameters could be used as descriptors of shape boundaries detected in digitized binary images of bacterial cells. In spite of the advantages of human vision, the differences between the computer and a bacteriologist in recognizing and counting of Salmonella cells were less than 8%. The computer analyzed each image in approximately 5 s (a total of 2 h including sample preparation), while the bacteriologist spent an average of 1 min for each image.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1745-4581
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: An image analysis system was developed and evaluated as a method for rapid detection of Salmonella typhimurium in pure culture and in chicken washes. A direct immunomagnetic separation and immunofluorescent staining technique was developed to capture and identify target cells. Digital images were acquired and segmented into background and bacteria. Bacteria were enumerated using a custom designed image analysis software. The image analyses results were compared with manual enumeration. A correlation coefficient of 0.78 was established between manual and image analysis counts. In addition, the difference between the manual and the image analysis bacterial counts in individual images was low. Image analysis took an average of 15 s to analyze an image. The results indicate that the proposed system has the potential to be used as a rapid screening procedure for bacterial detection in the food industry.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 63 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Glass transition temperatures of yellow and white corn cakes were investigated within the moisture range of 2 to 32% (w/w) using dynamic differential scanning calorimetry. All measurements were conducted at 10°C/min heating rate, 30 sec equilibrium period, and 1°C amplitude. Effects of water plasticization on corn cakes were predicted by the Gordon-Taylor's equation. Moisture sorption isotherms were established using BET and GAB equations. Relationships were found among glass transition temperature, moisture content and cake texture. The loss of crispness of corn cakes occurred within the glassy state. The initial loss of crispness occurred around monolayer moisture content, and the complete loss of crispness occurred at about 9% moisture with the highest hardness.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The apolipoprotein E isozyme, apolipoprotein E4, has been implicated as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. One reason for the increased risk may be that apolipoprotein E binds to the Aβ peptide, but there may be other factors as well. We show that apolipoprotein E is a potent regulator of the secretion of amyloid precursor protein. In cultures of PC12 cells, nanomolar levels of apolipoprotein E3 induce a rapid decrease in the secretion of APP, being observable in 30 min. and stable over 24 hours. Apolipoprotein E4, in contrast, increases secretion of APP over a similar time course. Reciprocal changes occur in cellular amyloid precursor protein. Differential characteristics are also seen in apo E binding to the cells, where apo E4 binds over a slower time course than apo E3. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which apolipoprotein E may be influencing the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 64 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An electrochemically activated solution (EAS) was evaluated for its antibacterial efficacy against Salmonella typhimurium on chicken carcasses during inside/outside (I/O) birdwasher spraying at 20°C and 413 kPa for 17s and chilling at 4°C for 45 min in a pilot plant. The EAS with 50 ppm of oxidants in terms of free chlorine (CI) in the I/O spray reduced Salmonella on carcasses by 1.39 log10 CFU/carcass, whereas tap water and a 50 ppm (CI) hypochlorite solution reduced Salmonella by 0.86 and 0.87 log10 CFU/carcass, respectively. Further chilling using iced EAS (50 ppm of CI) did not reduce Salmonella on carcasses but eliminated Salmonella in the chiller water.
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