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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 61 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Ba2+ has multiple effects on presynaptic terminals. The ion inhibits the K+ channels responsible for stabilizing the plasma membrane potential in the same way as previously reported for dendrotoxin and 4-aminopyridine. Secondly, the ion can substitute fully for Ca2+ in supporting KCl-evoked release of glutamate from guinea-pig cerebrocortical synaptosomes. In the latter case, the kinetics of glutamate release in the presence of saturating Ca2+ or Ba2+ are essentially identical. Substantially lower external concentrations of Ba2+ are required to achieve the same release kinetics as with Ca2+. The average internal free Ba2+ concentration attained during KCl depolarization is some 10-fold higher than that for Ca2+. However, because the fura-2 signal reflects predominantly the overflow of divalent cation after dissociation from the release trigger, it is not the valid parameter to compare effectiveness of the cations in triggering glutamate exocytosis. In view of the established inability of Ba2+ to interact with calmodulin, these results are discussed in relation to theories in which Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation is a prerequisite for synaptic vesicle exocytosis.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Regulation of catecholamine biosynthesis is crucial in the adaptation to various physiological conditions, such as stress, and in several disorders, including hypertension and depression. In this study we have found that in PC12 cells, the mRNA levels of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of norepinephrine from dopamine, can be regulated by glucocorticoids and cyclic AMP (cAMP) analogues. Treatment with dexamethasone increased DBH mRNA levels by 6 h, with maximal elevation (four- to fivefold) obtained after 1 day of exposure, and these levels were maintained for up to 4 days. DBH mRNA levels were also elevated on treatment of PC12 cells with 8-bromo cAMP for 8 h to 1 day. The response to 8-bromo cAMP, however, was bimodal, because DBH mRNA levels declined below control values on treatment for 〉 1 day. In combined treatments with 8-bromo cAMP and dexamethasone, the cAMP effect was dominant. To begin to characterize the regulation of DBH mRNA, genomic clones for rat DBH were isolated, and 1 kb of the 5’flanking region was sequenced. Several putative regulatory elements, which may be involved in cAMP and glucocorticoid regulation, were identified, including two adjacent cAMP response elements, another element that can also bind members of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, a NF-kB-like sequence, several AP-2 sites, and three core glucocorticoid receptor binding sequences.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Guinea-pig cerebral cortical synaptosomes were preincubated for 60 min with 100 μMd-aspartate, l-aspartate, or l-glutamate. The total d- plus l-aspartate content of the synaptosomal fraction increased to 235%, 195%, or 164%, respectively, of the control. Despite this no increase was seen in the very low KCl evoked, Ca2+-dependent release of aspartate. Preincubation with the three amino acids changed the synaptosomal glutamate content to 78% (d-aspartate), 149% (l-aspartate), or 168% (l-glutamate) of control. However there was no statistically significant effect of these preincubations on the extent of Ca2+-dependent glutamate release. Thus the Ca2+-dependent release of aspartate and glutamate is not determined by the total synaptosomal content of these amino acids. The addition of 0.1–0.5 mM glutamine to the incubation caused a massive appearance of glutamate in the extrasynaptosomal medium. Analysis of specific activities showed that glutamine was hydrolysed directly by an extra-synaptosomal glutaminase, and that intrasynaptosomal glutamate was predominantly labelled by uptake of this glutaminase-derived glutamate. No increase was seen in the extent of Ca2+-dependent release of glutamate (by fluorimetry) either after preincubation with glutamine or in the continued presence of glutamine. Thus we are unable to confirm reports that glutamine expands the transmitter pool of glutamate. The extrasynaptosomal glutaminase activity in the synaptosomal preparation was inhibited by Ca2+ and activated by phosphate. Identical kinetics were obtained with “free'’brain mitochondria, confirming the origin of the glutamine-derived glutamate.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Glutamate (10–100 μM) reversibly depolarizes guinea-pig cerebral cortical synaptosomes. This does not appear to be because of a conventional autoreceptor. Neither kainate at 1 mM, 100 μMn-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), 100 μM L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (APB), nor 100 μM quisqualate affects the Ca2+-dependent release of glutamate from suboptimally depolarized synaptosomes. However, kainate, quisqualate, and the quisqualate agonists β-N-ox-alylamino-L-alanine and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisox-azole propionate cause a slow Ca2+-independent release of glutamate from polarized synaptosomes. However, unlike kainate, quisqualate does not inhibit the acidic amino acid carrier. APB, NMDA, and the NMDA receptor-mediated neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine do not influence Ca2+-independent release at 100 μM. The depolarization of the plasma membrane by glutamate can be mimicked by D-aspartate, can be blocked by the transport inhibitor dihydro-kainate, and is accompanied by the net uptake of acidic amino acids. L-Glutamate or D-aspartate at 100 μM increases the cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration. D-aspartate at 100 μM causes a Ca2+-dependent release of endogenous glutamate, superimposed on the Ca2+-independent heteroexchange with glutamate through the acidic amino acid carrier. The results suggest that the glutamatergic subpopulation of synaptosomes can be depolarized by exogenous glutamate.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Nephrology 7 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY: During her first pregnancy, a 26-year-old-woman developed symptoms of severe preeclampsia at 23 weeks gestation. Fetal death in utero was confirmed shortly after presentation. A similar event at 13 weeks gestation in her second pregnancy prompted further investigation. She was found to have a rare form of haemolytic anaemia, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). Supportive management with prednisolone and anticoagulation enabled the gestation to continue and she was delivered successfully at 34 weeks.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Developing sensory neurons interact with molecular signals in the local environment to generate stereotypic nerve pathways. Regenerating neurons seem to lose the ability to reinnervate their original sites in the targets, resulting in abnormal sensory input and consequent clinical pathophysiology. The specificity of reinnervation of peripheral targets by regenerating axons is thus crucial for normal recovery of function. In this study, we have examined evidence for selectivity of interactions between primary afferent neurons from identified levels of the spinal cord and different peripheral nerve environments by culturing these neurons on sections of nerves to muscle and viscera. We have compared the growth of a population of sensory afferents normally innervating somatic targets (dorsal root ganglion cells from L4 and L5) with populations containing many afferents innervating visceral targets (L6 and S1 dorsal root ganglia and nodose ganglion). These neurons, from newly born rats, were cultured on unfixed cryostat sections of normal and prelesioned gastrocnemius nerve, pelvic spinal nerve and vagus nerve from adult rats. Normal muscle nerve was seen to support the regeneration of a significantly greater proportion of somatic neurons, with longer neurites, than the visceral nerves. Similarly, much higher proportions of the‘visceral’population of afferent neurons were seen to extend neurites on the normal visceral nerve substrates, with longer neurites, than on the muscle nerve substrate. The selectivity displayed by the sensory neurons for their normal nerve substrates was abolished when they were cultured on prelesioned nerve substrates subjected to Wallerian degeneration, which was apparent from the equivalent and increased proportions of growing neurons having comparable neurite lengths, on all the nerve substrates. We conclude that sensory neurons recognize and respond to substrate-specific and substrate-bound molecules present in normal adult peripheral nerves, and that these differences are lost in prelesioned nerves following Wallerian degeneration.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have studied the somatotopic reorganization in dorsal horn neurons after a disruption in the normal spatial arrangement of primary sensory axons in adult rats. Muscle afferents were redirected to skin by cutting and cross-anastomosing the hindlimb gastrocnemius nerve (GN) and sural nerve (SN). It has previously been shown that after 10 – 12 weeks GN afferents innervate the hairy skin of the lateral ankle and calf (previously innervated by SN afferents) and become potentially capable of relaying information on the location and intensity of stimuli applied to the skin. We determined the receptive field and response properties of dorsal horn neurons in the lumbar spinal cord, in regions where the lower hindlimb is normally represented. In control animals (with intact or self-anastomosed sural nerves) very few neurons (〈8%) received any synaptic input from the GN as assessed by electrical stimulation of the nerve. In contrast, when this nerve innervated skin, many cells responded to GN stimulation, and these nearly all had receptive field components in the former SN territory. Moreover, in animals with cross-anastomosed nerves, cells without GN inputs all had receptive fields outside the former SN skin territory. We have shown that in all likelihood GN afferents substituted for SN afferents in subserving the low and high threshold receptive fields of dorsal horn neurons. Furthermore, for many neurons, receptive fields were formed from inappropriately regrown GN afferents and adjacent intact cutaneous afferents (in the tibial or common peroneal nerves). Therefore, when GN afferents innervate skin in adult animals, they alter their central connectivity in an appropriate manner for their new peripheral terminations, so that an orderly somatotopic representation of the hind limb skin is maintained. We suggest that this plasticity of dorsal horn somatotopy is driven in part by activity-dependent mechanisms.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It was previously shown that the immediate early gene, c-jun, was highly expressed over long periods, in both peripheral sensory and motor neurons following axon damage or block of axoplasmic transport. Here we have examined the question of whether the expression of c-Jun protein is related to axon injury per se or to the process of axon growth. We have examined dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells subjected to different manipulations which are associated with varying degrees of regrowth, as follows: (i) after peripheral nerve section, where it appears that all damaged neurons make some regenerative effort. 1 – 24 days after sciatic nerve section and ligation most cells in L4/L5 DRG were c-Jun-positive; (ii) after section of the central processes of the DRG cells, which then showed a slow and limited regrowth of their axons towards, but not into, the spinal cord. This resulted in a variable, but significant, expression of c-Jun in a small number of DRG cells; (iii) in intact sensory neurons that were offered the opportunity to sprout into adjacent denervated peripheral tissue. The sciatic nerve was ligated and the response of cells in the L3 ganglia (many of which project to the saphenous nerve) was measured. A small but significant number of cells were c-Jun-positive; (iv) in intact sensory neurons that were offered the opportunity to sprout centrally into partialy denervated neuropil of the spinal cord. We examined neurons in the L3 DRG after rhizotomy of the adjacent L4/L5 dorsal roots. Previous work suggests that sensory neurons show at best a very limited growth under these conditions. No significant increase was seen in c-Jun expression in these cases. These results suggest that c-Jun expression is closely correlated with growth and regeneration, and not simply a consequence of neuronal injury.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: During development, nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates the density and character of peripheral target innervation (Barde, Neuron, 2, 1525–1534, 1989; Ritter et al., Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 17, 546.2, 1991); its role in adult animals is less well defined. Here we have asked if the availability of growth factors such as NGF in peripheral tissues can influence the pattern of primary afferent connections in the CNS. Using osmotic minipumps, we raised the levels of NGF in rat skeletal muscle in vivo, a tissue where the levels of this factor are normally very low (Korsching and Thoenen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 80, 3513–3516, 1983; Shelton and Reichardt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81, 7951–7955, 1984; Goedert et al., Mol. Brain Res., 1, 85–92, 1986). After 2 weeks of treatment we asked if the sensory neurons innervating this tissue showed an altered strength and distribution of connections with dorsal horn neurons. The contralateral (vehicle-treated) muscle, and totally untreated animals, served as controls. In normal and vehicle-treated animals, electrical stimulation of muscle afferents excited relatively few neurons in the dorsal horn, and these generally showed only weak responses. In contrast, on the NGF-treated side many more dorsal horn neurons in the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord were excited by muscle afferents. The increased responsiveness could not be explained by a generalized increase in dorsal horn excitability, since spontaneous activity was not enhanced, nor by a change in A-fibre-mediated inhibitions from the treated afferents. Thus, these afferents appeared to establish new synaptic connections or strengthened previously weak ones as a result of increased neurotrophic factor availability. The data suggest that, in the adult rat, the levels of growth factors in peripheral targets may be used to regulate an appropriate degree of afferent connectivity within the central nervous system.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Some properties of primary sensory neurons change when they reinnervate new peripheral targets (McMahon et al., Neuroscience, 33, 67–75, 1989). We ask here if such influences can extend to the central connectivity of sensory neurons. In adult rats the nerve to the gastrocnemius muscle (GN) and the cutaneous sural nerve (SN) were self- and cross-anastomosed on left- and right-hand sides, respectively, so that they regenerated to either appropriate or inappropriate targets. Ten to 14 weeks later, the distribution and strength of spinal connections of the SN and GN were determined. The unmyelinated afferents in the GN innervating skin increased their connectivity to 286% of that seen for the GN innervating muscle (P 〈 0.005), and came to resemble normal cutaneous afferents. However, for the SN there was no significant difference between appropriately and inappropriately regenerated nerves by this measure. The ability of myelinated fibres to produce inhibitions and facilitations in dorsal horn cells was also assessed. The intact or self-anastomosed SN produced predominantly inhibitory effects, whilst the GN produced predominantly facilitatory effects. After the SN had regenerated to muscle its central effects became predominantly facilitatory, whilst those of the GN innervating skin became inhibitory. These changes were statistically significant. In conclusion, we have found that major changes in the physiology of central connections in the dorsal horn may occur following peripheral reinnervation of foreign targets. The changes that were seen were appropriate to the new target, and could not easily be explained by non-specific changes due to axotomy, or changes in A-fibre-mediated inhibitions. We suggest that these effects might arise because of trophic influences arising in and specific to different peripheral targets.
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