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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (26)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The dynamics of fat/oil degradation were studied by measuring the concentrations of major degradation products, polymers, decomposition products, free fatty acids and total polar materials. Regression models were fitted to predict the changes in physical properties, specific gravity, viscosity, surface tension, specific heat, dielectric constant and capacitance with fat degradation. Fat degradation affected specific heat, specific gravity and viscosity. the dielectric constant or capacitance predicts fat degradation, independent of the food fried. A parallel plate capacitor of larger capacitance was found to produce better correlation with total polar materials in the high polar region.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Plantain fruits of the plantain subgroup (Musa AAB Group) were obtained at a green stage and used in this study. the fruits were labelled for identification, and stored in a chamber maintained at a temperature of 20C and relative humidity of 90 ± 4%. On daily basis, for a period of 14 days, the fruits were removed from the storage chamber and each was weighed to record the mass. They were vibrated vertically on a vibration exciter through a range of frequencies from 10 to 2000 Hz. the frequency response was modeled by a single-degree-of-freedom Kelvin model. the mass of the fruit, the stiffness, the natural frequency and the critical damping all decreased significantly (p 〈 0.01) with storage time. There was no significant change (p 〉 0.05) in the damping coefficient of the fruit. the damping ratio decreased significantly (p 〈 0.01) with storage time. the models that described the changes in these parameters with storage time were obtained by stepwise regression, and are also presented. It was concluded that a single degree-of-freedom model provides satisfactory results of the vibrational characteristics of intact plantain fruit.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Physical properties—rigidity modulus (RM), water solubility, gel strength (GS), water holding capacity (WHC), electrical conductivity (EC), apparent viscosity (AV), and pH of 8 starch-based fat-substitutes were determined. These fat-substitutes provide a wide variation in physical properties. Some form strong gels when heated, others provide good cold water solubility. In some cases, freezing treatment improved gelling ability. All fat-substitutes had good hot water solubility. the EC increased with the increase in fat-substitute concentration. pH at 30% concentration ranged from 4.8 to 6.6. the samples with lower concentrations resulted higher pH. Both pseudoplastic and dilatant behaviors were observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Tenderness of bologna, salami and pastrami was measured by Warner-Bratzler (W.B.) tests. Three sample diameters and three crosshead speeds were studied. the samples were ruptured under tension instead of shear; thus, shear force did not increase with the increase in sample diameter at the same cross-sectional area to applied force ratio. Crosshead speed did not affect results of bologna and salami, but affected many parameters of pastrami. Recommended test conditions are: sample diameter 20 mm at any crosshead speed for bologna; 10 to 20 mm sample diameter at any crosshead speed for salami; 15 mm sample diameter and 250 mm/min crosshead speed for pastrami.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Ground beef patties containing 2 fat levels (5%, 10%), and 3 fat-substitutes (LeanBind, Rice* Complete 3, and Sta-Slim 171) were processed using 3 cooking methods (microwave, roasting, and pan-frying). Correlation analyses between patty quality and the physical properties of the fat-substitutes, as well as the composition of both raw and cooked patties were conducted. Regression models of patty quality parameters as functions of the physical properties of the fat-substitutes, and as the function of the patty composition were developed. This work demonstrated that the fat-substitutes can be evaluated based on regression models relating patty quality to the physical properties of the fat-substitutes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Ground beef patties containing 2fat levels (5%, 10%), and 3 fat-substitutes (Lean-Bind (LB), Rice-Complete 3 (RC), Sta-Slim 171 (ST)) were processed using 3 cooking methods (microwave, roasting and pan-frying). Patties containing 20% fat, without fat-substitutes, were processed as a control. Textural properties of cooked patties were evaluated using Kramer shear, puncture, and Texture Profile Analyses. Press-juice, cooking losses and color parameters were also measured. Patties containing ST or LB and 10% fat, cooked by pan-flying, were more tender and juicier than other treatments including control, and had higher product yield than the control. ST provided the lowest cooking losses and the highest press-juice due to strong gelation ability and water holding capacity of ST Fat level did not affect color lightness (L*) or redness (a*) of the patties. However, both fat-substitute and cooking method affected L*, a* and b* (yellowness). Pan frying improved press-juice and reduced cooking losses, thus increased product yield, and provided tender patties compared to microwaved and roasted patties.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of muscle foods 4 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4573
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Water holding capacity (WHC) of ground beef was measured by the press method. Three levels of applied force, test duration, sample mass, and salt concentration were investigated. Three types of deformations – plastic, elastic and permanent were used to explain the effects of applied force on WHC. Viscoelastic properties explained the effects of test duration. In general, WHC decreased with additional applied force and test duration, and increased with a larger sample size and salt concentration. Recommended test conditions are: 1 g sample size, 20 kN force for 2 min at a salt concentration of 0, 1 or 2%.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1745-4530
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Predictive equations to compute the chilling time, mass loss at the end of chilling, temperature history at the geometric center of round and mass loss history during beef carcass chilling were developed using validated computer models and response surface analysis. Central composite rotatable design was used to obtain quadratic response surfaces for various chilling parameters. Temperatures at the geometric center of round muscle were predicted within 95% confidence interval. Mass loss histories were also predicted within 95% confidence interval after 5 h postmortem. Temperature predictions were within ± 2C and mass loss predictions were within ± 1.0%.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of muscle foods 4 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4573
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of various test parameters on stress relaxation analysis measuring viscoelastic properties of beef products, and the suitability of different models to describe that test data were investigated. Three types of processed meat products were evaluated: finely comminuted (frankfurter), ground beef (salami), and whole muscle (corned beef). Cylindrical specimens of meat products, 10, 15 or 20 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length were compressed to 10%, 20% or 30% of their original height for 9 min. The data were fitted using the Maxwell model with two elements and other available models in the literature. Stress was calculated by dividing the force by initial cross sectional area of the sample, and modulus by dividing stress by strain. Both sample size and compression ratio affected model parameters. A diameter to length ratio (D/L) of 1.5 and any compression ration were suitable for the whole muscle product; D/L of 1.5 and 10% or lower compression for ground beef; and D/L of 2 and 10% or lower compression ratio for finely comminuted products were the suitable test conditions.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1745-4573
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of model and process parameters on the predicted chilling time and mass loss of a beef carcass during chilling were studied by validated computer simulation. The effects of surface heat transfer coefficient, and thermal diffusivities of fat and muscle on the chilling time were significant as well as the effects of surface heat transfer and mass transfer coefficients on mass loss. However, the effects of moisture diffusivities on the chilling time and mass loss were insignificant. All of the process parameters significantly affected mass loss and chilling time. A decrease in relative humidity or an increase in air velocity or ambient temperature increased mass loss. An increase in air velocity or a decrease in ambient temperature decreased the chilling time. Based on the parametric analysis of the process parameters, air velocity in the chiller should be less than 1 m/s and the relative humidity of the chiller should be more than 80%.
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