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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Iron-saturated human transferrin was digested with either chymotrypsin or trypsin to produce C-lobe and N-lobe protein fragments. Individual protein fragments were purified by a combination of gel filtration and Concanavalin A affinity chromatographic procedures. The C-lobe and N-lobe fragments of human transferrin were then used in binding assays to assess their ability in binding to the bacterial transferrin receptors. Competitive binding assays demonstrated that the C-lobe fragment of human transferrin binds as well as intact human transferrin to bacterial transterrin receptors from Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophlius influenzae. Using isogenic mutants of N. meningitidis deficient in either of the transferrin-binding proteins (Tbps), we demonstrated that both transferrin-binding proteins were able to bind to the C-lobe fragment of human transferrin.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0625
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The extent of diversity of the γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) in normal human skin and Oriental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (OCL) was examined by molecular analysis of the variable (V) δ gene segment, junctional (J) δ gene segment and junctional regions. To examine the expression of TCR δ genes, segments of γδ T lymphocytes, DNA isolated from normal human skin and from OCL were subjected to enzymatic gene amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using TCR Vδ-and Jδ-specific oligonucleotides as primers. PCR amplification using these primers indicated that the Vδ2 gene segment was predominantly used by γδ T lymphocytes in both normal human skin and OCL. To determine the extent of junctional diversity in the δ gene of γδ T cells in normal human skin and OCL, we sequenced the nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the V δ2/Jδ1 junctional regions. Sequence analysis of junctional regions demonstrated broad junctional diversity in normal skin but only limited diversity in OCL. Our findings support the hypothesis that skin γδ T lymphocytes may derive from a fetal subset of γδ T lymphocytes that leaves the thymus early and colonizes (he periphery. The limited junctional diversity demonstratd in OCL lesions indicates that γδ T cells can undergo oligoclonal expansion following recognition of a specific ligand and supports the idea that junctional regions are important in the recognition of antigenic determinant.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Two conventional composites and one microfilled composite were exposed to cigarette smoke in vitro in a smoking chamber. Colour parameters were measured using reflectance spectrophotometry. The conventional composites showed more extensive staining than the microfilled composite. The stains were effectively removed by extensive cleaning.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of oral rehabilitation 14 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this study samples made from pigmented porcelain and Silastic 44210 were evaluated for colour stability after accelerated ageing in order to determine the potential of coloured ceramic powders as maxillofacial pigments. These pigments demonstrated good clear colour stability compared with the same pigments which were not incorporated into a porcelain matrix.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 136 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It has been suggested that T lymphocytes expressing γδ T-cell receptors could play an important role in defence against some intracellular infectious pathogens. The present study was undertaken to characterize the occurrence and variable δ gene expression of T lymphocytes expressing the γδ T-cell receptor in oriental cutaneous leishmaniasis. Eleven cases of oriental cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated by immunohistological analysis using an alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) technique. In three cases, we observed an increased percentage of γδ T cells (about 20% of CD3+ cells). In these cases γδ T cells generally expressed the Vδ2 segment, and only rarely the Vδ1 gene product. Vδ2+ cells were predominantly localized in the dermis, and were virtually absent in the epidermal compartment. The rare γδ T cells observed in the epidermis were almost exclusively Vδ1+. This study demonstrates that an increase of γδ T cells may be found in oriental cutaneous leishmaniasis, although it is not a constant feature of the disease. The finding of a preferential expansion of the Vδ2 subset suggests that this subpopulation of yδ T cells might be selectively involved in the recognition of Leishmania antigens. The distinct compartmentalization of yδ T-cell subpopulations indicates that these subsets may recognize distinct sets of antigens.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of γδ T cells in normal human skin, and the possible role of these cells in cutaneous reactions. Twenty-eight samples of normal skin from various sites, and 52 biopsies from inflammatory and neoplastic skin conditions were investigated by immunohistochemical techniques. In normal human skin γδ T cells were infrequently seen in the epidermis and dermis. In the inflammatory and neoplastic dermatoses, γδ T cells were occasionally present, accounting for 0–5% of CD3+ cells in most of the biopsies examined. In one case of pityriasis lichenoides chronica and one case of lichen planus γδ T cells were found to be increased, accounting for 15% of the CD3+ cells in each case. Dermal γδ T cells were markedly increased in three of six cases of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. with up to 30% of dermal CD3+ cells showing positive staining to an anti-T-cell receptor γδ monoclonal antibody. In two of these cases γδ T cells were seen in both the dermis and the epidermis. In two further cases dermal γδ T cells were not a prominent feature, but small clusters of epidermal γδ T cells were observed.T cells bearing the γδ T-cell receptor are thus not a major feature of normal human epidermis, unlike the murine system, where the great majority of epidermal lymphocytes express the γδ T-cell receptor. The finding of numerous γδ T cells in Langerhans cell histiocytosis suggests a possible functional relationship between γδ T cells and Langerhans cells or possibly a pathogenic role of these cells in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 40 (1983), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Heterosis (hybrid vigor) for brain myelin content has been examined in detail in (C57BL/6J × DBA/ 2J)F1 hybrid mice at 17 days of age. The amount of myelin isolated from the F1 hybrid brain is greater than that isolated from either parental strain. In addition, the total protein content in the myelin of the three genotypes showed the following trend: F1 〉 DBA 〉 C57. However, no discernible differences in myelin protein compositions could be detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the whole brain for several myelin-associated constituents such as GM1 ganglioside, 2′, 3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphohy-drolase (CNPase), 5′-nucleotidase and carbonic anhy-drase indicated that heterosis exists for these components. No heterosis was found for such nonmyelin constituents as gangliosides GDIa, GT, GQ, RNA, DNA and choline acetyltransferase. A developmental study of the whole brain CNPase indicated that the heterotic effect was greatest during the most active period of myelination (17–30 days). We conclude that the heterotic effect is specific for myelin content and is probably the result of an accelerated myelin synthesis. The heterotic effect should have great potential as a new model for studying aspects of myelinogenesis.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 21 (1973), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract— Gangliosides were isolated from purified human myelin in a yield of 62 μg of lipid-bound sialic acid per 100 mg of dry myelin. Sialosylgalactosyl ceramide (G7) was found to be a major component of the ganglioside fraction, amounting to 15 per cent of the total sialic acid. It accounted for 10 per cent of lipid-bound sialic acid in adult human white matter, making it the third most abundant ganglioside on a molar basis. These results were obtained with an improved method for isolating total gangliosides in high yield, by employing DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography. Myelin from other mammalian species had considerably less G7, and there were also indications of maturational changes. Both 2-hydroxy and unsubstituted fatty acids were components of the ceramide unit, in a ratio of 3:2, respectively. The overall fatty acid pattern was very similar to that for myelin cerebroside and sulphatide. Long-chain bases included only C18 species, with sphingosine predominating (〉90 per cent). These observations suggest a metabolic relationship between G7 and either cerebroside or sulphatide.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 25 (1975), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract— Gangliosides were isolated from myelin prepared from mouse brains of different ages (23 to 490 days). Quantitative estimation of lipid-bound sialic acid levels indicated a gradual increase from 560 μg/g of myelin at 23 days to about 1200 μg/g of myelin at older ages. The major ganglioside in all myelin preparations was the monosialoganglioside G4 (GM1). However, considerable amounts of di- and trisialo species also were found in myelin from young animals. In contrast to human myelin in which the monosialoganglioside, sialosylgalactosylceramide (G7) was highly enriched (Ledeenet al., 1973), a much smaller enrichment of this ganglioside was noticed in mouse brain myelin. Ganglioside G7 was not detectable in myelin until the animals were 35 days old, and showed a slight increase with increasing age after that. The results strongly indicated that the concentration of G7 in myelin is species specific and age dependent. The study also demonstrated that the ganglioside accretion in developing mouse brain myelin was attributable to the enrichment of monosialogangliosides G4 (GM1), G5 (GM2) and G7 at the expense of polysialogangliosides.
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