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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Neuropathy target esterase from hen brains was radiolabelled at the active site with [3H]diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate. The labelled protein was purified by differential centrifugation and Nonidet P40 solubilization, detergent phase partitioning, anion exchange, and preparative sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The volatilizable counts assay and analytical SDS-PAGE were used to monitor the protein. The 150-kDa subunit polypeptide appears as a single band on analytical SDS-PAGE.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Renin synthesis and secretion were studied in Balb/ c mice with a denervated left kidney.2. Denervation inhibited renin secretion.3. Denervation reduced the renal renin content.4. Denervation reduced renal renin mRNA.5. Renal denervation inhibits renin secretion by blocking the synthetic system prior to mRNA formation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is an extremely labile mediator thought to be identical to nitric oxide (NO).2. A cascade superfusion technique was used to bioassay EDRF released from bovine aortic endothelial cells grown to confluence on microcarrier beads.3. Bradykinin (1–100 nmol/1), infused through a 1 cm column of endothelial cells on microcarriers, released an EDRF-like substance that caused relaxations of de-endothelialized strips of rabbit aorta (precontracted with phenylephrine). These relaxations diminished on successive tissues in the cascade, when compared with those produced by glyceryl trinitrate as a stable standard.4. Haemoglobin (1 μmol/1), infused directly over the bioassay tissues, abolished bradykinin-induced relaxations and these were restored within 5 min after removal of haemoglobin. The infusion did not affect the relaxations produced by glyceryl trinitrate in this system.5. Methylene blue (20 μmol/1) inhibited bradykinin-induced relaxations when infused over the rabbit aortae, and reduced those relaxations produced by glyceryl trinitrate. The effects of bradykinin, but not glyceryl trinitrate, were partially restored after removing methylene blue.6. These data are consistent with the known effects of these compounds on the activity of NO, and on EDRF in isolated blood vessels.7. The activity of EDRF (released by bradykinin) was compared directly with NO on strips of guinea-pig trachea (de-epithelialized) interposed in cascade between two rabbit aortae; all strips were precontracted with histamine and phenylephrine.8. A submaximal dose of NO that matched the relaxation produced by EDRF on the uppermost aorta, caused relaxation of the trachea, but EDRF had no effect on this tissue. In addition, the NO-induced relaxation of the lower aorta was greater than that produced by EDRF.9. These data indicate that EDRF does not have identical biological activity to NO. EDRF could contain an NO moiety attached to a carrier molecule that is bound and stabilized in tracheal tissue.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 47 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Humans have a haemochorial, villous placenta. Uterine blood passes through maternal sinuses, bathing placental villi through which fetal blood circulates. Blood flow through each circulation is high and vascular resistance low. This haemodynamic situation is essential for efficient placental function.2. The low placental vascular resistance is due to a lack of nervous influences together with pregnancy-induced changes promoting vasodilatation. Increases occur in output of the vasodilators prostacyclin and nitric oxide and also in membrane sodium pump activity.3. Many autacoids are present in umbilical blood. Fetal vessels of the placenta develop intense vasoconstriction in the presence of some autacoids, such as thromboxane A2 and prostaglandins F2α and E2, and respond weakly to others, such as angiotensin II and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Nevertheless, vasodilator influences predominate.4. The diseases of pre-eclampsia and fetal growth retardation are associated with reduced output of nitric oxide and prostacyclin and with increased production of thromboxane A2 and endothelin-1. These changes promote vasoconstriction, increased vascular sensitivity to vasoconstrictor stimuli, platelet aggregation and intravascular coagulation, retarding blood flow and feto-placental growth.5. Aspirin and glyceryl trinitrate have been investigated for possible therapeutic use in pre-eclampsia and fetal growth retardation. Improved drug therapy is likely as knowledge increases of the importance of autacoids in normal placental function and in the changes that occur during disease.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 122 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The administration of Factor XIII (FXIII) produces a beneficial effect on the skin lesions in about 50% of the treated patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). The effect of FXIII on various skin fibroblast functions (proliferation, attachment, biosynthetic activity and mechanical properties) was investigated in vitro using normal and PSS strains. In cell culture, most of the PSS fibroblast strains synthesized excessive amounts of collagen. Other cell functions such as adhesion to collagen I or III, to fibronectin, retraction of collagen lattices, proliferation in low serum concentration and degradation of newly synthesized collagen were not significantly different. The addition of FXIII (i U/ml) inhibited the synthesis of collagen by normal fibroblasts and reduced it in PSS fibroblasts to a level similar to that of normal fibroblasts. This effect was observed for cells cultured on plastic or in a collagen lattice. In the latter, an increased amount of collagen degradation was observed. No significant effect of FXIII on the other cell functions was noted. Excessive collagen production by PSS fibroblasts can be repressed by FXIII in vitro by at least two distinct mechanisms: a reduction of collagen synthesis and an increased degradation of the newly synthesized collagen.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 103 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: With rare exceptions, the presence of cornoid lamellae in skin biopsy specimens is considered diagnostic of porokeratosis. Since the initial descriptions of this condition by Mibelli (1893) and Respighi (1893), there has been debate concerning its relationship to the eccrine sweat duct.This paper describes an epidermal naevus, which pathologically demonstrated gross examples of cornoid lamellae associated exclusively with the eccrine duct and ostia, and which appears to represent a naevus or benign hamartoma of these structures. This entity needs to be clearly differentiated from porokeratosis of Mibelli.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Child 30 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2214
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background  This population-based study investigated prospectively collected absence for respiratory illness data in two types of formal childcare (centre day care and family day care) in Perth, Western Australia, and factors associated with such absence.Methods  All centres (n = 11) and 95% of family day care caregivers (n = 130) selected at random from licensing lists agreed to participate. Demographic details were obtained from a parental questionnaire and absences were recorded prospectively. Characteristics of the child and family were described using univariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Multivariable analysis including generalized estimating equations was used to investigate having at least one absence for respiratory illness, having two or more absences, and having six or more absences.Results  No statistically significant difference between care types for having had at least one absence episode for respiratory illness (OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.92–2.04) was found. Children who attended care for more days per week (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.26–1.56) and those in the study for more weeks (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.05) were more likely to be absent for respiratory illness. Those children in care for a greater number of hours per day were less likely to be absent (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97). Family history of bronchitis was also associated with absence for respiratory illness (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.32–2.63).Conclusions  Statistically significant factors which had an impact on absence for respiratory illness were primarily those relating to the time spent in childcare and to family history of bronchitis.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The human placental lobule, perfused with a constant flow (5 mL/min) of Krebs’ solution after delivery at term, released into the fetal perfusate a digoxin-like substance, as measured by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay.2. Initially the venous concentration was 360 ± 66.7 pmol/ L digoxin equivalents. This level did not change significantly during fetal vasoconstriction induced by prostaglandin F2α infusion and persisted for the duration of the experiment (1.5–2h).3. Infusion into the fetal circulation of Fab fragments of sheep antibodies to digoxin caused vasodilatation, indicated by a fall in perfusion pressure.4. Thus a digoxin-like immunoreactive substance, previously reported to be present in the placenta, is released into the fetal circulation and may play a role in placental control of fetal vascular tone.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The vasodilator effects of hydralazine in vitro, using the Krebs’ perfused human placental lobule was studied. Single placental lobules were bilaterally perfused (maternal and fetal sides 5 mL/min each, 95% O2, 5% CO2, 37°C) and changes in fetal arterial pressure (FAP) and venous outflow (VO) were recorded.2. Submaximal vasoconstriction was induced by KCl (20–50 mmol/L), which increased basal FAP from 22.8 ± 1.7 to 91.3 ± 3.9 mmHg (n =9, P〈0.001), and decreased VO from 4.1 ± 0.6 to 0.2 ± 0.1 mL/min (n =6, P〈0.01).3. Hydralazine caused vasodilatation (IC50 1.9 mmol/L, n = 9) and increased VO in the presence of KCl-induced vasoconstriction.4. Infusion of Nω-nitro-L-arginine (100 μmol/ L) to block nitric oxide synthase caused the basal FAP to increase from 30.9 ± 5.9 to 47.4 ± 6.7 (n =6, P〈0.05) and significantly potentiated hydralazine-induced vasodilatation (n =7, P〈0.05).5. The soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor LY 83583 (6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione) (1 μmol/L) significantly antagonized the vasodilatation produced by hydralazine (n =5, P〈0.05).6. Thus, hydralazine appears to activate guanylate cyclase, leading to increased cyclic GMP in fetal arterial vascular smooth muscle to cause vasorelaxation. No evidence was obtained to suggest that hydralazine exerted its action by either releasing nitric oxide from endothelial cells in the placenta or acting as a nitric oxide donor.
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