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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: P0, the most abundant glycoprotein of PNS myelin, is a homophilic and heterophilic adhesion molecule. P0 is known to contain a glycofonn population that expresses the L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope found on other neural adhesion molecules, and to be functionally implicated centrally in neural cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth. This carbohydrate epitope has been characterized previously from glycolipid structures and contains a sulphated glucuronic acid residue. However, the L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope has not been characterized in glycoproteins. Because P0 possesses only one glycosylation sequon, the number of P0 glycoforms is equal to the heterogeneity of the glycan species. Here we report that the carbohydrate analysis of L2/HNK-1-reactive P0 showed the presence of anionic structures containing sialic acid and sulphate in various combinations. At least one sulphate residue was present in 80% of the monosaccharide sequences, and 20% contained three sulphates. High-resolution P4 gel chromatography of the desialylated and desulphated oligosaccharides showed substantial heterogeneity of monosaccharide sequences. Sequential exoglycosidase digestions indicated that the majority of the structures were of the hybrid class, although the sulphated structures were found to be en-doglycosidase H-resistant.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have previously described two proteoglycans from human sciatic nerve which are immunochemically related to the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans versican and decorin. The chondroitin sulphate of the versican-like molecule and the core protein of the decorin-like molecule have been found previously to be up-regulated after lesioning the adult mouse sciatic nerve. To investigate if the versican- and decorin-like molecules are involved in cell-extracellular matrix interactions, we studied the effect of both molecules on cell adhesion. The versican- and decorin-like molecules, substrate-coated in a mixture with fibronectin, but not with laminin or collagen types I or IV, inhibited the adhesion of several cell lines, neonatal dorsal root ganglion neurons and Schwann cells. The inhibitory activity was concentration-dependent and mediated by the chondroitin sulphate. Furthermore, when different proteoglycans were incubated with fibronectin, only the versican- and decorin-like molecules and the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan aggrecan, but not the heparan sulphate proteoglycan perlecan, were able to inhibit fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion. The versican- and decorin-like molecules, substrate-coated alone or in a mixture with fibronectin or laminin, were at most slightly inhibitory to neurite outgrowth from PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells and neonatal dorsal root ganglion neurons. In a solid-phase ligand-binding assay theversican- and decorin-like molecules interacted with fibronectin, but not with laminin or collagen types I and IV. Binding of the versican-like molecule to fibronectin and inhibition of cell adhesion by this molecule was mediated via the heparin and cell-binding domains of fibronectin. These observations suggest that binding of the two proteoglycans to fibronectin is involved in the modulation of adhesion of cells to fibronectin.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: After transection of adult mouse sciatic nerve, the expression of a chondroitin sulphate epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody 473-HD (mAb 473-HD) was found to be up-regulated. The epitope was localized immunocytochemically mainly in Schwann cell basal laminae and, more weakly, also in the endoneurium. In cultures of mouse dorsal root ganglion cells, Schwann cells expressed high levels but fibroblasts only low levels of the epitope. To identify the molecule(s) carrying this chondroitin sulphate epitope, human sciatic nerves were extracted with phosphate-buffered saline and shown to contain two chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans of apparent molecular weights of 130 and 900 kDa. The 900 kDa and, more weakly, the 130 kDa proteoglycan were reactive with mAb 473-HD, which was found to recognize chondroitin-6-sulphate as epitope. Following chondroitinase ABC treatment of the 130 kDa proteoglycan, a core protein of ∼45 kDa was seen and shown to react with polyclonal antibodies against the chondroitin-dermatan sulphate proteoglycan decorin from human fibroblasts. Chondroitinase ABC treatment of the 900 kDa proteoglycan yielded a core protein with a molecular weight of ∼400 kDa that was recognized by polyclonal antibodies against recombinantly expressed fusion proteins from human versican. After transection of adult mouse sciatic nerves, the distal nerve stumps showed up-regulation of the chondroitin-6-sulphate epitope of the 900 kDa proteoglycan, whereas the core protein of this proteoglycan did not show any detectable change in the level of expression. In contrast, the core protein of the 130 kDa proteoglycan was up-regulated in expression. These observations suggest that versican- and decorinlike molecules may contribute to successful regeneration in the peripheral nervous system of mammals.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have previously shown that myelinating Schwann cells associated with motor, but not sensory, axons in peripheral nerves of adult mice express the L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope. This carbohydrate structure carried by glycolipids and neural cell adhesion molecules has been suggested to specifically foster regrowth of motor as opposed to sensory axons after infliction of a lesion. To determine which molecular components may be the carriers of the L2 carbohydrate in motor axon-associated myelinating Schwann cells, we have isolated the purely sensory, cutaneous branch and the mixed sensory and motor muscle branch of the femoral nerve of adult mice, isolated the myelin fraction thereof and analysed the molecules expressing the L2 carbohydrate by several immunochemical methods. L2 immunoreactivity in myelin of the muscle branch was four to five times higher than that of the cutaneous branch. The 110 kDa L2-immunoreactive glycoprotein in myelin of the muscle branch, which is not L2-immunoreactive in the cutaneous branch, was identified as the myelin-associated glycoprotein by a combination of immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. Myelin extraction with organic solvents additionally revealed the two L2-carrying glycolipids, which amounted to-40 ng glycolipid/mg dry weight in myelin of the muscle branch, whereas no significant amounts of the L2 glycolipids were found in myelin of the cutaneous branch. These observations suggest an astonishing degree of differential regulation of carbohydrate-synthesizing activities in myelinating Schwann cells.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Based on the observation that in adult mice the carbohydrate epitope L2/HNK-1 is detectable on Schwann cells in ventral spinal roots, but only scarcely in dorsal roots (Martini et al., Dev. Biol., 129, 330–338, 1988), the possibility was investigated that the carbohydrate is involved in the outgrowth of regenerating motor neuron axons on peripheral nerve substrates expressing the epitope. To monitor whether the L2 carbohydrate remains present during the time periods in which regenerating axons penetrate the denervated distal nerve stumps, the expression of L2 in motor and sensory branches of the femoral nerve was investigated in normal animals and after a crush lesion. During the first two postoperative weeks, L2 immunoreactivity remained high in the myelinating Schwann cells of the motor branch, whereas L2 immunoreactivity was virtually absent in the sensory branch. In a first experimental approach, cryosections of ventral and dorsal spinal roots and of motor and sensory nerves of adult rats and mice were used as substrates for neurite outgrowth. Neurites of motor neurons from chicken embryos were ∼35% longer after 30 h of maintenance on ventral roots than on dorsal roots. Neurites from sensory neurons had the same length on dorsal as on ventral motors and were as long as neurites from motor neurons grown on dorsal roots. L2 antibodies reduced neurite outgrowth of motor neurons on ventral roots but not on dorsal roots. Neurite outgrowth of sensory neurons on both roots was not altered by the antibodies. Neurite outgrowth of motor neurons on a mixture of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein laminin and the L2 carbohydrate-carrying glycolipid was significantly higher than on the laminin substrate mixture with GD1b ganglioside or sulphatide. L2 antibodies reduced neurite outgrowth of motor neurons by 50% on the L2 glycolipid, but not on GD1b or sulphatide. These observations indicate that the L2 carbohydrate promotes neurite outgrowth of motor neurons in vitro and may thus contribute to the preferential reinnervation of motor nerves by regenerating motor axons in vivo.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary Head flexion and extension movements near the natural head position (NHP) were analysed for the location of the mean instantaneous centre of rotation (ICR). Forty-six healthy young adults (30 women and 16 men) with sound dentitions, free from cranio-cervical disorders, performed habitual movements that were automatically detected and measured by an infrared three-dimensional motion analyser. ICR and curvature radius were calculated for each movement and subject. In both extension and flexion, ICR position changed during the motion. The movement was symmetrical in all subjects. No gender or flexion/extension differences were found for both ICR position and relevant curvature radius. On average, ICR relative to NHP soft-tissue nasion was located at about 150% of the soft-tissue nasion–right tragus distance, with an angle of about 220° relative to the true horizontal. Results suggest that head flexion or extension is always performed with a combination of rotation (atlanto-occipital joint) and translation (cervical spine) even in the first degrees of motion. Moreover, NHP at rest seems to be some degree more flexed and anterior than head position during movements. These relative positions and their muscular determinants could also influence mandibular posture at rest and during functional movements.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1399-3038
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study was performed to examine the prevalence and clinical correlates of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (BPI-ANCA) in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and to elucidate their possible role in CF pulmonary pathology. Sera of 27 CF patients were tested for ANCA by indirect immunofluorescence (IFT) and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for ANCA sub-specificities. BPI-ANCA were examined by using standard ELISA for BPI, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and BPI/LBP fusion proteins to epitope map the main binding sites and look for cross-reactivity with LBP. Pulmonary function and serum concentrations of total immunoglobulin G (IgG) were measured and infections were diagnosed. In addition, release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutrophil granulocytes was measured after stimulation with monoclonal BPI-ANCA. Using IFT, two patients showed atypical ANCA staining, six patients exhibited perinuclear ANCA staining, and no cytoplasmic ANCA staining was detected. Of 27 patients, 13 (48%) were BPI-ANCA (IgG) positive, and three were also immunoglobulin A (IgA) BPI-ANCA positive; one patient had ANCA against lactoferrin; and no proteinase 3 ANCA was detected in any of the patients. All BPI-ANCA bound to the C-terminal region of the molecule; none bound to the N-terminus or to LBP. There was no significant correlation between clinical data and the occurence of BPI-ANCA in this cross-sectional study. Release of ROS from granulocytes was induced by monoclonal BPI-ANCA. Activation of neutrophils and possible modulation of BPI-mediated opsonophagocytosis and disposal of Gram-negative bacteria and lipopolysaccharides by BPI-ANCA raise the possibility that they contribute to pulmonary pathology in pediatric CF patients but intervention longitudinal studies in large groups of patients are needed to establish a causative association.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope shared by several neural adhesion molecules has been implicated in cell-to-cell and cell-to-laminin adhesion (Keilhauer et al., Nature, 316, 728–730, 1985; Künemund et al., J. Cell Biol., 106, 213–223, 1988). As demonstrated previously for chicken retinal ganglion cells (Cole et al., Neurosci. Lett., 93, 170–175, 1988), cerebral cortex astrocytes or cerebellar neurons could not be shown to adhere to the substrate-bound L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate. The cell-bound L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate, however, was a potent mediator of astrocytic and neuronal cell adhesion to laminin, which was strongly reduced in the presence of the L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate-carrying glycolipids or Fab fragments of a monoclonal antibody against it. Inhibition of adhesion could not be observed in the presence of the negatively charged gangliosides or sulphatide, but in the presence of heparin. To investigate whether the L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate and heparin use the same or different binding sites on laminin, adhesion of cells to laminin was determined in the presence of heparin and Fab fragments of a monoclonal L2 antibody, which gave an additive value of inhibition as compared to the inhibition caused by the single compounds. This result, as well as studies of the binding of the L2/HNK-1 glycolipids to laminin in the presence of heparin, indicates that the L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate and heparin are implicated in different aspects of neural cell adhesion to laminin.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have studied two monoclonal antibodies raised against crude fractions of membrane glycoproteins from adult mouse brain and found them to react with two carbohydrate epitopes expressed on several neural cell adhesion molecules. Other identified and unidentified glycoproteins from different cell types, organs and species were also recognized by these antibodies. Both epitopes are N-glycosidically linked mannosidic or hybrid type oligosaccharides and co-expressed on all the glycoproteins so far tested. In spite of their remarkable similarities, the glycan epitopes are different as shown by ELISA competition assays. In microexplant outgrowth and cell adhesion assays, both antibodies interfere with neural cell adhesion, migration, and neurite outgrowth. These observations, together with previous studies on the L2/HNK-1 glycan (Künemund et al., 1988), indicate that adhesion molecules carry various carbohydrate epitopes mediating different cell interactions in in vitro assays.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The hippocampus and amygdala, the entorhinal cortex and the parietal cortex participate, in that sequence, both in the formation and in the expression of memory for a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats. Bilateral infusion of AP5 or muscimol caused retrograde amnesia when given O min after training into both hippocampus and amygdala, when given or 180 min after training into the entorhinal cortex, or when given 180 min after training into the parietal cortex. Therefore, memory formation requires the sequential and integrated activity of all these areas mediated by glutamate NMDA receptors in each case. Pre-test administration of CNQX 1 day after training into hippocampus and amygdala, 1 or 31 days after training in entorhinal cortex, or 1, 31 or 60 days after training in the parietal cortex temporarily blocked retention test performance. Therefore, 1 day after training, all these brain structures are necessary for retrieval; 1 month later, the hippocampus and amygdala are no longer necessary for retrieval but the entorhinal and parietal cortex still are; and 60 days after training only the parietal cortex is needed. In all cases the mechanisms of retrieval require intact glutamate AMPA receptors.
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