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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 44 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), a potent and specific inhibitor of nucleoside transport, was employed as a photolabile probe of the adenosine transporter in guinea pig brain membranes. Reversible, high-affinity binding of [3H]NBMPR to a crude preparation of guinea pig brain membranes was demonstrated (apparent KD 0.075 ± 0.012 nM; Bmax values of 0.24 ± 0.04 pmol/mg protein). Adenosine, uridine, dipyridamole, and nitrobenzylthioguanosine inhibited high-affinity binding. Low concentrations of cyclohexoadenosine (10–300 nM) had no effect on NBMPR binding. These properties of the high-affinity NBMPR binding sites were consistent with NBMPR binding to the nucleoside transport protein. Exposure of brain membranes in the presence of [3H]NBMPR and dithiothreitol, a free-radical scavenger, to ultraviolet light resulted in covalent incorporation of 3H into polypeptides of apparent MW 66,000–45,000, a value similar to that for the human erythrocyte nucleoside transporter. Covalent attachment of [3H]NBMPR was inhibited by adenosine, dipyridamole, and nitrobenzyl-thioguanosine.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 23 (1974), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: —Injection of a soluble protein fraction from mouse brain into rabbits gave rise to an antibody which was specific for galactocerebroside. The antigen had the following characteristics: (1) it was present in the soluble fraction of a mouse brain homogenate but absent from the soluble fraction of homogenates of mouse liver, spleen, kidney and testis; (2) it was non-dialysable; (3) it voided from a Sephadex G200 column; (4) on immunodiffusion with antibody directed against it, it gave a sharp single precipitin band; (5) it bound to DEAE cellulose column and was eluted with high salt. Given these characteristics the antigen might have been identified as a ‘brain specific protein’. However, the lipid nature of the antigen was revealed when it was found that it was not destroyed by Pronase digestion and could be quantitatively extracted with chloroform-methanol. The antigen has been identified as a galaetocerebroside and is 100 times more abundant in the myelin fraction than in the soluble fraction of the mouse brain homogenates. The antigen could have been falsely identified as a ‘brain specific protein’ if the antigenicity and macromolecular behaviour of lipids was overlooked.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1360-0443
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: The transdermal nicotine patch has proved an effective aid to smoking cessation. The ease of securing good compliance gives it a potential advantage over nicotine gum as an adjunct to brief advice and support in primary care settings where the major public health impact is obtained. In a preliminary report of half the sample of a randomized placebo controlled trial, we showed the patch to be effective in a general practice setting. We report here the definitive results of the full sample, including dose effects, predictors of outcome and other issues of theoretical and practical interest. A total of 1200 heavy smokers (≥ 15 per day), attending 30 general practices in 15 English counties received brief GP advice, a booklet and 16 hours per day patch treatment for 18 weeks. Dose increase and abrupt vs. gradual reduction of patch dosage were also randomised and follow-ups conducted at 1, 3, 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Outcome was measured by self-reported complete abstinence from week 3 to 52 with biochemical validation at all follow-up points. Nicotine patch treatment doubled the rate of continuous abstinence up to 1 year (nicotine 9.6%, placebo 4.8%, p 〈 0.01); it most likely worked by reducing withdrawal symptoms. It enhanced cessation during the first week and reduced relapse during the second week. The dose increase after week 1 produced no sustained increase in cessation. Gradual reduction was no better at preventing relapse than abrupt withdrawal of patches after week 12. Whether relapse would have increased by ending treatment at some point between weeks 3 and 12 was not tested. Although pre-treatment dependence on cigarettes was prognostic of failure, the patches were equally helpful to both highly and less dependent smokers. Patches were particularly helpful to smokers with pre-treatment subclinical dysthymic symptoms. All but one of the 96 subjects eventually achieving long-term abstinence in the study quit during the first week of cessation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2621
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The thermal stability of β-lactoglobulin was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as part of a larger investigation into milk and whey fouling. Measurement of kinetics using DSC is very difficult as the resultant trace is the sum of simultaneous denaturation and aggregational enthalpies; the two processes were demonstrated by measurements at different heating rates. β-lactoglobulin denaturation proceeds via an intramolecular disulphide stabilized intermediate and is irreversible even before the denaturation temperature is reached. Denaturation and aggregational processes can be partially separated by measurements over a range of pH. The literature shows that the rate of fouling decreases as solution pH increases. However, DSC shows that the thermal stability of β-lactoglobulin decreases as pH increases, particularly above pH 6. It is hypothesised that aggregation rather than denaturation might be the critical step in the formation of fouling deposit.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 〈list xml:id="l1" style="custom"〉1There is considerable in vitro evidence that, at high concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) acts directly on pre-constricted blood vessels to cause vasorelaxation. Previously, we have seen vasoconstriction rather than vasodilatation in conscious dogs at physiological levels of the peptide. It is possible that the low resting vascular tone in our conscious, unstressed animals prevented the manifestation of the relaxant properties of ANP in vivo.2In the present study in conscious, instrumented dogs, we studied the mesenteric vascular responses to 10 min infusions of ANP (10, 25, 50 and 100ng/kg per min, i.v.) when resting vascular tone was enhanced with a continuous infusion of AVP (75 pg/kg per min, i.v.) and compared these with responses in the normal condition (no added AVP).3Mesenteric vascular resistance was increased by ANP (10, 25, 50 and 100ng/kg per min) by 9±2, 20±6, 29±7 and 32±9%, respectively. Increased resting vascular tone did not alter the mesenteric vasoconstrictor response to ANP. Thus, the discrepancy between in vitro (vasorelaxation) and in vivo (vasoconstriction) findings may be the result of the widely different concentrations of ANP used, rather than the state of resting vascular tone.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Over the past 8 years, we have followed a child born as a harlequin baby, who survived due to treatment with retinoids. His condition evolved clinically towards the erythrodermic form of lamellar ichthyosis (non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, NBCIE). According to ultrastructural and biochemical criteria, our patient originally presented with type II harlequin ichthyosis. Investigations showed an abnormal keratinosome structure and extrusion, a keratin pattern characteristic for epidermal hyperproliferation, and an absence of conversion of profilaggrin to filaggrin. Persisting keratinocyte hyperproliferation, associated with the presence of a dermal infiltrate, is in agreement with the present clinical picture of severe NBCIE. However, abnormal lamellar body production and defective filaggrin processing, which is not one of the diagnostic criteria of NBCIE, persist in the patient's skin. Further studies of the epidermal lipid composition, and of possible mutations of the keratinocyte transglutaminase gene performed on epidermal cell cultures of harlequin ichthyosis, will be necessary before type II harlequin ichthyosis can be accepted as an extremely severe form of NBCIE.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The stratum corneum (SC) has long been considered as a sort of inert membrane destined to be shed at the surface of the epidermis. During the last two decades, however, several lines of evidence have been reported, suggesting that active physical and chemical changes take place in the horny layer despite the absence of intracytoplasmic organelles. In particular, processing of filaggrin, replacement of the plasma membrane by a ceramide envelope and constant, progressive modification of extracellular lipid multilayers have been put forward. Recently, attention has focused on the intercellular junctions, which may be involved in the regulation of SC desquamation. Corneodesmosin, a newly discovered protein of SC desmosomes (corneodesmosomes), is synthesized at the latest stages of keratinocyte differentiation and persists between the horny cells until desquamation occurs. In the present study, we performed immunohistochemical and immuno-ultrastructural investigations on corneodesmosin expression in various skin lesions characterized by abnormal production and/or retention of the horny layer. Our results suggest that corneodesmosin expression is independent from profilaggrin synthesis. We found corneodesmosin in almost all morphologically recognizable corneodesmosomal structures and specifically those which persisted up to the SC surface. Hyperkeratotic lesions which are characterized by an increased number of junctions showed intense immunoreactivity with anticorneodesmosin antibody. A complete absence of corneodesmosin was not observed in any disease. This finding, together with our previous biochemical studies, suggests that corneodesmosin may exert a protective function against proteolytic degradation of corneodesmosomes both in normal skin and in the pathological horny layer.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1744-313X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The objectives of the Fifth International BoLA Workshop were to: standardize nomenclature, compare typing methods, and characterize BoLA haplotypes. The workshop was based on the distribution of blood samples (cells) from 60 selected cattle to 14 laboratories. Results for the class I (BoLA-A) region are presented in this paper while results for the class II regions are presented in a separate report. Thirty-six of the 50 previously established serological class I specificities were represented in the cell panel. However, only 30 specificities could be confirmed. Two specificities, A16 and A32, were upgraded from provisional, workshop (w) specificities to BoLA-A locus specificities and three new specificities, w51(w28), w52 and w53(w28), were defined. The 39 specificities distinguished 30 class I haplotypes in the 60 animals. Class I isoelectric focusing proved to be a useful adjunct to the serology. Isoelectric focusing confirmed several serologically defined splits and detected splits of A15(A8), A18(A6) and A22(w49) that had not been detected by serology. Subsequently, serological support for splits of A15(A8) and A22(w49) was found.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology reviews 29 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6976
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The field of probiosis has emerged as a new science with applications in farming and aqaculture as alternatives to antibiotics as well as prophylactics in humans. Probiotics are being developed commercially for both human use, primarily as novel foods or dietary supplements, and in animal feeds for the prevention of gastrointestinal infections, with extensive use in the poultry and aquaculture industries. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed, the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, the failure to identify new antibiotics and the inherent problems with developing new vaccines make a compelling case for developing alternative prophylactics. Among the large number of probiotic products in use today are bacterial spore formers, mostly of the genus Bacillus. Used primarily in their spore form, these products have been shown to prevent gastrointestinal disorders and the diversity of species used and their applications are astonishing. Understanding the nature of this probiotic effect is complicated, not only because of the complexities of understanding the microbial interactions that occur within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), but also because Bacillus species are considered allochthonous microorganisms. This review summarizes the commercial applications of Bacillus probiotics. A case will be made that many Bacillus species should not be considered allochthonous microorganisms but, instead, ones that have a bimodal life cycle of growth and sporulation in the environment as well as within the GIT. Specific mechanisms for how Bacillus species can inhibit gastrointestinal infections will be covered, including immunomodulation and the synthesis of antimicrobials. Finally, the safety and licensing issues that affect the use of Bacillus species for commercial development will be summarized, together with evidence showing the growing need to evaluate the safety of individual Bacillus strains as well as species on a case by case by basis.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cellobiose dehydrogenase was purified from the brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana. Strong cross-reaction was observed with antibodies to cellobiose:quinone oxidoreductase from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Kinetic measurements were made with cellobiose as electron donor. Ferricyanide and DCPIP both showed a pH optimum close to pH 4, but activity with ferricyanide declined more rapidly when the pH was raised. Dioxygen reduction to hydrogen peroxide was observed, but at a much lower rate than for other acceptors. These properties are similar to those of cellobiose dehydrogenase from P. chrysosporium, despite differences between brown and white rot modes of decay.
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