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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 34 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Analogs of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor pargyline with a nitroxide free radical moiety attached through an ether linkage to the para position on the benzene ring have been prepared and reacted with solubilized MAO preparations from rat and beef brain and pig liver. These compounds behave as normal irreversible inhibitors of catalytic activity, with some preference for B-type enzyme. When the reaction was monitored by electron spin resonance (ESR), line broadening effects indicative of binding and with an apparent relation to substrate specificity of the preparation were observed. In addition, there was a slow decrease in intensity of the ESR spectra, which could be retarded by the addition of other MAO inhibitors or increased O2 and enhanced by flavin reduction. It appears to be related to development of the irreversible phase of MAO inhibition. Signal recovery with added O2 and studies of a model reaction with free flavin, suggest the signal loss to be a line broadening effect due to interaction with an enzyme-generated paramagnetic species rather than to direct reduction of the nitroxide radical.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: This study investigates how densities of ringed seals were affected by construction and oil production activities at Northstar, an artificial island built in the nearshore Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Intensive and replicated aerial surveys of seals on landfast ice were conducted during six spring seasons: for three seasons before island construction began (1997–1999); after a winter of intensive island construction (2000); and after more limited construction plus drilling (2001) and drilling plus oil production (2002). A Poisson regression model was used to examine seal densities relative to distance from Northstar after allowance for environmental covariates. Post hoc power analysis indicated that the study design and Poisson regression approach had high power to detect small-scale changes in seal densities near Northstar if such changes had occurred. However, seal densities during spring were not significantly affected by proximity to Northstar in 2000–2002. Habitat, temporal, and weather factors did have significant effects on seal densities. This study shows that effects of the Northstar oil development on local distribution of basking ringed seals are no more than slight, and are small relative to the effects of natural environmental factors. An understanding of environmental effects is essential when assessing potential impacts of industrial activity on ringed seals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology reviews 18 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6976
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract: Acquired thermotolerance, the associated synthesis of heat-shock proteins (HSPs) under stress conditions, and the role of HSPs as molecular chaperones under normal growth conditions have been studied extensively in eukaryotes and bacteria, whereas research in these areas in archaea is only beginning. All organisms have evolved a variety of strategies for coping with high-temperature stress, and among these strategies is the increased synthesis of HSPs. The facts that both high temperatures and chemical stresses induce the HSPs and that some of the HSPs recognize and bind to unfolded proteins in vitro have led to the theory that the function of HSPs is to prevent protein aggregation in vivo. The facts that some HSPs are abundant under normal growth conditions and that they assist in protein folding in vitro have led to the theory that they assist protein folding in vivo; in this role, they are referred to as molecular chaperones. The limited research on acquired thermotolerance, HSPs, and molecular chaperones in archaea, particularly the hyperthermophilic archaea, suggests that these extremophiles provide a new perspective in these areas of research, both because they are members of a separate phylogenetic domain and because they have evolved to live under extreme conditions.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The effects of intracellularly generated H2O2 on cell viability, morphology, and biochemical markers of injury have been investigated in a clonal cell line of neuronal origin (140-3, mouse neuroblastoma X rat glioma) as a cell culture model for the role of oxidative stress in the longterm loss of neurons in the brain. The H2O2 was generated from the redox cycling of menadione, or by the oxidation of serotonin catalyzed by monoamine oxidase, to simulate the effect of amine neurotransmitter turnover. Incubation with menadione at concentrations as low as 10 γM for several hours resulted in significant losses of cell viability and altered morphology. Similar effects were evident in the presence of serotonin only after incubation overnight with concentrations 〉 1 mM. The cytotoxicity of either agent was potentiated by preincubation with specific inhibitors of two enzymes important to cellular antioxidant defenses, 3-amino-1,2,4-trazole for catalase and 1,3-bis(chloromethyl)-1-nitrosourea for glutathione reductase. Activity of another antioxidant enzyme of particular importance to antioxidant defenses in brain, the selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase, was stimulated fourfold by growth of cultures in the presence of sodium selenite as a source of active-site Se for the enzyme. The only effect of the selenite on other functionally coupled antioxidant enzymes was a decrease in activity of superoxide dismutase at concentrations 〉200 nM. The selenite substantially protected cells against oxidative stress induced by combinations of menadione, 3-amino-1,2,4-trazole, and 1,3-bis(chloromethyl)-1-nitrosourea, but was only marginally effective with serotonin as a source of oxidative stress. The monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline increased cell survival in the presence of serotonin, demonstrating the role of this enzyme in its cytotoxicity. DNA damage (single strand breaks), but not lipid peroxidation, correlated with the cytotoxic effects of menadione.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1552-6909
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Two common natural family planning (NFP) methods are the ovulation method based on characteristics of cervical mucus and the symptothermal method based on changes in cervical mucus, basal body temperature, and the cervix. Both methods are effective when used correctly. Nurses should understand the principles of NFP and introduce these methods in discussions of family planning options. Interested clients should be referred to a certified NFP instructor for education and supervision.
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