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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Deletion analysis studies have been carried out on the nifHDK promoter (p1) of R. meliloti in the expression of this promoter under both free-living microaerobic and symbiotic conditions. Deletion of a region down-stream (+17 to +61) from the promoter element resulted in low levels of expression under free-living microaerobic conditions However, wild-type levels of expression were obtained during symbiosis with Alfalfa plants. The sequences in this region were designated the‘downstream sequences'. The pattern of expression observed when the downstream sequences were deleted was similar to that observed when a previously identified upstream activator sequence (UAS) was deleted. Only when both the downstream sequences and the UAS were deleted, did activity form the P1 promoter become significantly decreased during symbiosis. Expression studies of the P1 promoter in a nifA mutant background indicate that nifA is required for symbiotic expression of P1 which is enhanced by the presence of the downstream sequences.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Selected commercial and experimental composites and resin systems have been evaluated by thermal analysis techniques of Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis and Thermomechanical Analysis. Important thermal data such as heat of cure, coefficient of thermal expansion, dimensional changes over selected temperature ranges, filler weight percent, onset temperature of decomposition, temperature of peak decomposition rate, temperature of the end of decomposition, etc. have been determined. Heat of cure, thermal expansion coefficient and dimensional changes appear to follow an inverse linear regression fit with filler fraction in the composite. Thermal expansion changes and exothermic reactions with temperature indicate secondary cure during postcure heating. The thermally-induced decomposition occurs in multiple stages indicating presence of different structural species in the resin matrix.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary p16INK4 gene, which encodes a specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). has been recently reported as an important tumour suppressor gene. It is mapped to chromosome 9p21, which is frequently deleted or mutated in many tumour cell lines including malignant melanoma. Since the CDK4/cyciin I) complex propels a cell to go through the G1 check point of the cell cycle, a critical phase of cell division, alteration of the p16INK4 gene could lead a cell to uncontrolled proliferation and malignant transformation. To clarify any role for p16dINK4 and CDK4 proteins in the development of human malignant melanoma, we have examined, immunohistochemically, the expression of these two proteins in melanocytic neoplasms including 19 primary lesions of nonfamilial melanoma. Intense nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression of the CDK4 protein was observed in 11 of 19 cases (58%) of melanoma. In contrast, virtually no nuclear or cytoplasmic staining for CDK4 protein was detected in 28 benign melanocytic naevi, including six Spitz naevi. Expression of p16INK4 protein was observed in three of 19 melanomas (16%) and in 17 of 28 benign naevi (61%). Inverse expression of CDK4 and p16INK4, at individual cell level, was detected in one case of melanoma. The present study suggests that CDK4 overexpression is characteristic for malignant melanoma, and probably reflects its autonomous accelerated cell proliferation. The expression rate of p16INK4 protein in malignant melanoma was lower than that in benign naevi, although the significance of p16INK4 deletion in melanoma development has not been definitely confirmed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1744-313X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We present eight new nucleotide sequences derived from the second exons of class II genes within the major histocompatibility complex of Sanguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin). These comprise two DRB alleles (Saoe-DRB3*0504, -DRB*w1203), two DQA1 alleles (Saoe-DQA1*2501, -DQA1*2502), two DQB1 alleles (Saoe-DQB1*2201, -DQB1*2301), one DQB2 allele (Saoe-DQB2*0101) and one DPB1 allele (Saoe-DPB1*0101).
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of texture studies 29 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4603
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A device to objectively measure the melt/flow behavior of cheeses at different temperatures was built consisting of a temperature-controlled heater, an LVDT (linear variable differential transformer), and a personal computer with a data acquisition system. This device, named UW Meltmeter, operates in the lubricated squeeze-flow configuration and can be used either alone at a constant force or in conjunction with a universal testing machine at a constant deformation rate. A marker technique was used to verify the shear-free squeezing flow assumption. The flow of Mozzarella cheeses with 14 and 43% fat content was studied at 40 and 60C under constant force (0.7 and 0.9 N) and constant cross-head speed (0.5 and 2.5 cm/min). Biaxial extensional strain rate and biaxial stress growth coefficient were calculated. The results supported the expected trend of increased meltability at higher fat levels and at higher temperatures.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 67 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : Use of several lipids as an alternative to cholesterol to prepare stable liposomes was tried. Liposome prepared at 1/0.25 lecithin/stearic acid ratio exhibited better (55%) encapsulation efficiency (EE) of bovine serum albumin (BSA) than that (41%) prepared at 1/0.25 lecithin/cholesterol ratio. Liposomes showed the minimal released percentage of encapsulated BSA at pH 6. Storage at −20 °C caused serious damage to liposomes. Addition of α–tocopherol was effective in stabilizing liposomes. Liposomes, incorporated with α–amylase, prepared at 1/0.25 lecithin/cholesterol or stearic acid ratio were effective in protecting enzyme against acid (pH 2.8) and pepsin (15 mg/mL). Use of stearic acid, instead of cholesterol, would be feasible in preparing stable liposomes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Four techniques for measuring growth of Tetrahymena pyriformis W (TpW), namely, direct microscopic count (DMC), tetrazolium dye-reduction (TPTZ), oxygen uptake (O2 -UT), and ATP bioluminescence (ATP-biol.), were compared with rat protein efficiency ratio (PER) assays for assessing protein quality. Relative nutritive value (RNV) of the test material was compared to a casein standard by slope ratio assay and by use of one concentration of nitrogen in the growth medium of TpW. Samples consisted of breads, made with wheat flour, soybean meal and nonfat milk solids, which contained different concentrations of glucose and of nutritionally complete diet mixtures containing either ANRC casein, peanut meal, or wheat gluten as a source of protein. Correlations between RNV determined by TpW growth and by rat PER were high. It was concluded that TPTZ, O2 -UT, or ATP-biol. could be used to replace the tedious and time-consuming DMC in measuring growth of TpW for protein quality assay. There were no apparent differences in results obtained by the slope ratio method and those derived from use of only 0.3 mg N/ml of growth medium, and the latter technique is faster.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-like structures were generated on stainless steel under di(ethylene glycol) vinyl ether (DiEGVE) radio frequency-plasma environments. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated a PEG-like deposition, which was stable to cleaning, sanitizing, and storage for up to 2 mo. Atomic force microscopy and water contact angle analysis indicated that the modified stainless-steel surfaces were less rough and more hydrophilic than the unmodified surfaces. Listeria monocytogenes attachment and biofilm formation on modified surfaces decreased more than 90% compared with the unmodified stainless steel (P 〈 0.01). DiEGVE cold plasma was demonstrated to be a promising technique to reduce bacterial contamination on surfaces encountered in food-processing environments.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : Dielectric properties of mashed potatoes relevant to microwave and radio-frequency (RF) pasteurization and sterilization processes were measured over 1 to 1800 MHz and 20 °C to 120 °C. Effects of moisture content (81.6% to 87.8%, wb) and salt content (0.8% to 2.8%, wb) were investigated. Dielectric loss factors and constants decreased with frequency. Dielectric loss factors increased with temperature and salt content, but dielectric constants were not significantly affected. Ionic conductivity played a dominant role at low frequencies. Power penetration depth increased with moisture content and decreased with temperature, frequency, and salt content. Regression equations were developed to relate the dielectric properties to temperature, moisture, and salt contents.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 68 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : A study was conducted with a pilot-scale sterilization system based on 27-MHz radio frequency (RF) energy to investigate the effectiveness in shortening process time and in improving quality for foods sealed in 6-pound military-ration polymeric trays. Chemical marker M-1 was used to evaluate heating uniformity in 20% whey protein gels as a model food, and macaroni and cheese was processed to assess the influence of RF process on product quality. With the RF system, a lethality (F0= 10 min) was achieved in both model food and macaroni and cheese within 30 min with relative uniform heating, compared to a 90 min conventional retort process that delivered a similar lethality.
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