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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. A study was undertaken in 1987 to determine the prevalence of infectious panercatic necrosis virus (1PNV) infection in the lake trout population of Cornwall Lake. Alberta, Canada, and its pathogenicity to cultivable salmonid fish. Virological examination indicated that 44.4% of the adult lake trout in the lake, which is situated in a remote northern region of Alberta, were infected with the virus, mainly in the pyloric caeca and intestine. Virus was not detected in kidney, leucocytes, liver or gonads. In experimental immersion infection of brook trout fry, the virus caused a cumulative mortality of up to 74% in 30 days, beginning at 10 days post-infection. Pyloric caeca, intestine and to some extent gills were found to be early sites of viral replication. The virus was less pathogenic to rainbow trout causing a cumulative mortality of 10% and the survivors were IPNV carriers for at least 3 months. The virus did not cause mortality in young lake trout, the natural host, but the infected fish carried the virus during the experimental period of 30 days.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary Variation in the components of soft lining materials, i.e. the size of polymer particles, the ethyl alcohol content of the liquids and the type of plasticizer, were investigated with respect to their effects on the growth and colonization of Candida albicans. Inhibitory effects on fungal growth and/or acid production were found to vary depending upon the components of soft lining materials. In particular, two plasticizers, benzyl benzoate (BB) and benzyl salicylate (BS), significantly decreased the growth rate, whereas the size of polymer particle had little effect on fungal growth. Ethyl alcohol content of liquid significantly affected the fungal growth and/or acid production depending upon the plasticizer used. For instance, in the case of BS, the antifungal effect was related to ethyl alcohol contents, whereas a reverse effect was observed with benzyl n-butyl phthalate (BBP). Further examination using scanning electron microscopy revealed that Candida blastospores colonized lining materials in the following two ways depending on the plasticizers used. On the BS and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) specimen, the blastospore of this yeast associated loosely, whereas, in the case of BB, BBP and butyl phthalyl butyl glycorate (BPBG), fungal blastospore tightly and invasively colonized onto the specimens. These results clearly demonstrated a relationship between components of soft lining materials and fungal growth and colonization.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary The effects of salivary or serum pellicle on Candida albicans growth, biofilm formation and cavitation on the soft lining materials were examined. Both saliva and serum pellicles reduced the antifungal effects of soft liners. The fungal biofilm formation on these materials varied depending upon both the materials tested and protein-coats, and the pellicles which significantly enhanced the biofilm formation. Similarly, the pellicles enhanced the firm colonization and hyphal invasion of the yeasts on the specimens, although the cavitation appeared to be regulated by the plasticizer used. These results suggest that the interactions between proteinaceous pellicle, tissue conditioners and fungi are complex. They also suggest that denture pellicles facilitate fungal plaque formation onto soft lining materials through several mechanisms such as reduction of the antifungal effects of soft liners, facilitation of biofilm formation, firm colonization and hyphal invasion. In addition, the composition of the materials is also involved in the susceptibility to the fungi.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The stages of development leading to sporogenesis of Ceratomyxa shasta (Noble) were investigated by light and electron microscopy. Salmonid fishes were infected by exposing them to water containing the infectious stage and intestinal material was fixed at weekly intervals. Signs of intestinal infection were barely detectable by 7 days following exposure where trophozoites and later developmental forms were present, but by 14 days a large number of pansporoblasts could be detected in varying stages of development. By 21 days the majority of caeca were completely occluded and infection had spread throughout the connective tissues attached to the caeca.The early developing trophozoites contained two or more nucleated cells within a mother cell. There was some evidence of multiplication of nuclei by fission. The sporoblasts usually contained twelve nucleated cells that gave rise to two groups of six cells (sporonts) and resulted in the formation of two spores in each mother cell. Each spore was formed by two sets of bilaterally arranged cells consisting of the main germinative cell or sporoplasm, the anteriorly placed capsule cells and the outer envelope or spore valve cell that surrounded the others and formed the spore covering.As the spore matured the two germinative cells interacted with each other by pseudopodial extensions and appeared to fuse to form a diploid cell. The position of the cells laterally and slightly posteriorly to the central suture line formed a bilaterally curved spore. Mature spores when examined with the electron microscope were condensed, dark staining and relatively featureless, with a lateral measurement of 15 μm and an anterior-posterior measurement of 7μm.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Effects of soft lining materials on the growth and/or acid production of Candida albicans were investigated using a simplified method monitoring the pH change in the growth medium. Reverse sigmoidal pH curves were observed with all samples and, as compared with acrylic, all soft lining materials inhibited fungal growth or acid production in the following way, i.e. delay of the beginning of a rapid and linear decline in pH, decreases in the rate of linear change in pH and increases in minimum pH.Further examinations using a surface-modified glass tube revealed that the order of Candida growth agreed with the relative hydrophobicity and adherence capacity of substrates, suggesting that this adherence capacity affected the yeast growth on their surfaces.Besides adherence capacities of substrates, the powder, liquid and plasticizer of some soft lining materials directly inhibited Candida growth. Thus, the results obtained here revealed that several factors within soft lining materials affected Candida growth and/or acid production.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary A new antimicrobial material, Ag-zeolite (Zeomic°), was combined with a commercial tissue conditioner (GC-Soft Liner (GC); 1–5%) and, through monitoring the pH of the growth medium, examined for effects on the in vitro growth and/or acid production of Candida albicans on protein-free and saliva-coated specimens. The effect of incorporation of this agent on the physical property of the lining material was also examined according to the ISO penetration test. Comparison studies were carried out using GC, Coe Comfort (CC) or undecylenate combined GC (1–5%) specimens. Although the pH changes in the media varied depending upon the materials on which the Candida was grown, reverse sigmoidal pH curves were observed with most samples. As compared with GC, the soft lining materials showed, to some extent, an inhibitory effect on the acid production and/or the growth of C. albicans. These inhibitory effects consisted of a delay in the onset of rapid pH decline, decreases in the rate of pH change and increases in minimum pH. In most cases, the inhibitory effects of test specimens were dose-dependent, and zeolite specimens showed a significantly higher antifungal effect, followed by CC and undecylenate-combined GC; GC showed the least antifungal effect. The inhibitory effects of these materials on fungal growth were decreased by the presence of a saliva-coat, particularly with zeolite specimens and CC. However, four of eight 5%-Zeomic° specimens still exhibited perfect growth inhibition in the presence of the salivary pellicle. Furthermore, test specimens containing 2–5% Zeomic° showed a significantly greater effect on the delay in rapid decline of pH, as compared with the other specimens examined. In addition, the significantly higher minimum pH was observed where the yeasts were grown on 4%- and 5%-Zeomic° specimens. The physical properties of all the test specimens conformed with the ISO standard as examined by penetration test. These results taken together suggest that an antimicrobial zeolite-combined tissue conditioner would be a potential aid in denture plaque control.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 137 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Stem cell factor (SCF) distribution in basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) was examined by immunohisto-chemistry. Eighteen BCCs (11 nodular, three superficial, two cystic, one adenoid and one morphoeic type) showed positive expression of SCF in the tumour islands. The centre of the tumour island was strongly positive in nodular, superficial and morphoeic types. In cystic BCCs. SCF-positive tumour cells were also located in the peripheral lesion around the cystic space. SCF was also detected on fibroblast-like cells and mast cells in the stroma. SCF was positively stained within the upper keratinocytes in the overlying epidermis, more strongly as compared with normal skin. The mast cell number (mean ± SD)) was significantly increased in the peritumoral stroma (85.7 ± 28. 3/mm2) compared with normal skin (32.1 ±4.2/mm2) (P〈0.005). SCF was also positive in the tumour nests of four cases of trichoepithelioma, in which fibrosis of the surrounding stroma was found histologically. This study demonstrates that abundant SCF produced by the tumour cells may account for the increased number of stromal mast cells, which induce fibroplasia of the surrounding stroma.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Cutaneous plasmacytosis is a rare disorder without systemic plasma cell proliferation in organs other than the skin, with a possible malignant transformation. However, there are few effective therapies available. It has been reported that interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is a cytokine inducing B-cell differentiation to immunoglobulin-producing cells, plays a part in systemic plasmacytosis. In this study, we performed intralesional steroid therapy in the lesions of cutaneous plasmacytosis in three patients, which resulted in sufficient clinical effects. We demonstrated that before treatment, plasma IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in all the patients, and that levels were reduced in parallel with the clinical improvement after therapy. Immunohistochemistry revealed IL-6 protein expression on tumour cells in the lesional skin. Reverse transcription—polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected IL-6 mRNA in the lesional skin in all cases, levels of which were decreased after the effective intralesional steroid therapy, but which were unchanged after ineffective topical photochemotherapy (PUVA). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the patients produced significantly large quantities of IL-6 which were reduced by addition of steroid in vitro. These results suggest that the generation of IL-6 plays the key role in cutaneous plasmacytosis and that intralesional steroid therapy is effective in reducing the production of IL-6 in this disorder.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Epidermal hyperplasia consisting of discrete translucent raised outgrowths of cells were observed on the skin of walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Mitchill), during their spawning period in the spring. The cells constituting the hyperplastic growths were limited to the epidermal layer, and were associated with surface budded, 120-nm-diameter, retrovirus-like particles located in the expanded intercellular spaces. These tumour-like growths were distinct from the other virus-associated skin lesions of walleye including dermal sarcoma, lymphocystis disease and herpesvirus-associated hyperplasia. Lesions could be differentiated by careful observation in the field and comparison of portions of each growth by histologic and electron microscopic observations.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. To elucidate the functional implication of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor, we studied the gene expression of VLDL receptor in rats. The VLDL receptor mRNA was highly expressed in the cardiac ventricle and skeletal muscle. Intermediate amounts of VLDL receptor mRNA were detected in adipose tissue, adrenal gland, brain and lung. Thus the tissue distribution of VLDL receptor mRNA in rats was similar to that reported previously in rabbits.2. We studied the gene expression of the VLDL receptor in the heart of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP), an animal model for hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. RNase protection assay showed that the level of ventricular VLDL receptor mRNA was already decreased to one half when hypertension was not fully developed, and further diminished to one fifth when cardiac hypertrophy was established.3. It is reported that energy utilization in SHRSP hypertrophied myocardium is impaired. Our results suggest that inactive fatty acid metabolism in the ventricle of SHRSP is related to the lowered expression of the VLDL receptor which is postulated as a gate for triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle.
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