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  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Implicit strategies for neuroprotection in the adult brain include GABAA receptor activation, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor and sodium voltage-gated channel inhibition. Ironically, these same targets may be harmful to the immature or developing brain. Protection has been demonstrated for both immature and mature brain with the use of a synthetic ovothiol analogue. The following beneficial effects have been demonstrated in mice: protection against audiogenic seizures, brain structures with clear-cut delineation of ibotenate-challenged white and grey matter lesions along with exceptional early and delayed protections, and potent cerebral cell death inhibition. The compound lacks both GABAergic activity and sodium channel blocker properties, which may help explain the lack of toxicity normally expressed in an immature brain utilizing these agents [J.W. Olney (2002) Neurotoxicology, 93, 1–10]. The oxidized form of the compound is virtually devoid of antioxidant activity. In vivo it exhibits cerebroprotective properties similar to those of reduced compounds endowed with antioxidant properties. This unexpected finding has prompted an extensive in vitro exploration of underlying molecular mechanisms that have led to the identification of several recycling mechanisms consistent with non rate-limiting conversion of oxidized to reduced compound forms. Taken as a whole, this work offers an unique combined in vitro and in vivo support that: (i) antioxidant therapy, here engineered from marine invertebrate egg protectants, may be a valuable strategy in protecting both mammalian adult and developing brain; and (ii) recycling (thiol-disulphide exchange) properties of the oxidized form of an antioxidant compound are as important as the antioxidant potential exhibited by a bioactive reduced antioxidant in certain neuroprotective processes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0846
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background/aims: Prolonged skin occlusion increases stratum corneum water content and often increases skin permeability and irritant dermatitis. As skin wetness from wearing diapers is considered an important factor favouring the onset of diaper dermatitis, optimal diapering might decrease skin hyperhydration and dermatitis. Our aim is to define the quantitative relationship between nicotinate ester (a model penetrant) skin permeability and hydration, as measured by water evaporation rate (WER), decay curves (at individual time points) and WER-area under the curve (WER-AUC); and also to determine the level of skin hydration and skin permeability to nicotinates following a diapering simulation.Methods/results: Nine healthy Caucasian adult women were enrolled after a prescreening procedure (time to peak redness response to nicotinate); each received three wet occlusive patches for different exposure times (10 min, 30 min, and 3 h) and two wet model diapers (3 and 8 h). Prior to patching or diapering of forearms, basal values of WER, skin blood flow volume (BFV), capacitance (Cap) and redness (a*) were measured on premarked sites (a, b, c and d). Immediately, following occlusive patch or diaper removal, 20 µL of each nicotinate (methyl and hexyl nicotinate) was applied to its respective site (a or b). The WER and Cap readings were recorded at designated sites (c and d) with the following intervals after nicotinate applications: 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. The a* and BFV measurements were made on each nicotinate challenged site (a and b) with the following intervals after nicotinate applications: 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 60 min.Results: WER-AUC and thus, skin hyperhydration, increased with occlusive patch and diaper exposure time, but there was no statistical difference between 3 and 8 h diaper sites. All patched sites had significantly (P 〈 0.05) increased hydration in comparison to control sites (undiapered or unpatched skin). Cap increased with occlusion time with patches, but not with diapers. The degree and time-course of redness from nicotinates did not vary with extent of skin hydration, but was significantly increased compared to non-hydrated skin. BFV-AUC did not show a significant increase between diapers at 3 and 8 h sites; the BFV-AUC values varied on the patched sites, but some were significantly (P 〈 0.05) higher than control site.Conclusion: Wet patches and diapers increased skin hyperhydration proportional to exposure time. Permeation of nicotinates was increased for hydrated skin vs. control, even after only 10 min of patch exposure. For these model permeants, we found no evidence of increased permeation rates with increased hyperhydration, once a relatively low threshold of hyperhydration was achieved (e.g. that reached after a 10 min wet patch). The data showed no meaningful differences in permeation following either diapering simulation and also suggested that the WER-AUC method was superior to capacitance for measuring the absolute extent of hyperhydration. We believe this is a suitable model for evaluating the quality of diaper product performance, as well as in pharmacologic assays of occlusive therapy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays an important inhibitory role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response. The involvement of the mPFC appears to depend on the type of stressor, preferentially affecting ‘psychogenic’ stimuli. In this study, we mapped expression of c-fos mRNA to assess the neural circuitry underlying stressor-specific actions of the mPFC on HPA reactivity. Thus, groups of mPFC-lesioned and sham-operated rats were restrained for 20 min or exposed to ether fumes for 2 min. In both cases, the animals were killed at 40 min from the onset of stress. Interestingly, bilateral lesions of the mPFC significantly enhanced c-fos mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of restrained animals, an effect that was paralleled by potentiation of circulating ACTH concentrations in these animals. On the other hand, lesions of the mPFC did not affect neither PVN c-fos mRNA expression nor plasma ACTH concentrations in animals exposed to ether. Lesions of the mPFC also enhanced c-fos activation in the medial amygdala following restraint, but not following ether exposure. Additional regions whose activity was affected by mPFC lesions or stressor differences included the ventrolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, CA3 hippocampus, piriform cortex, and dorsal endopiriform nucleus. Expression of c-fos mRNA was nearly absent in the central amygdala of all stressed animals, regardless of lesion. Furthermore, prefrontal cortex lesions did not change stress-induction levels of c-fos in the CA1 hippocampus, dentate gyrus, anteromedial division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral septum, and claustrum. Taken together, this study indicates that the medial prefrontal cortex differentially regulates cellular activation of specific stress-related brain regions, thus exerting stressor-dependent inhibition of the HPA axis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is the primary controller of hypothalamo-pituitary–adrenocortical glucocorticoid release. In performing this function, the paraventricular nucleus summates a variety of information from both external and internal sources into a net secretory signal to the adrenal cortex. In this review, we will provide an overview of neuronal circuit mechanisms governing activation and inhibition of hypophysiotrophic neurons, highlight recent developments in our understanding of nonsynaptic mechanisms regulating paraventricular cellular activity, including dendritic neuropeptide release, direct steroid feedback, cytokine cascades and gaseous neurotransmission, and illustrate the capacity for hypophysiotrophic, neurohypophysial and preautonomic paraventricular effector pathways to work together in control of glucocorticoid release. The current state of knowledge reveals the paraventricular nucleus to be a dynamic entity, capable of integrating diverse classes of signals into control of adrenocortical activation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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