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  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It has been demonstrated that patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type show particular difficulties with a task that measures memory for object locations [R. Swainson et al. (2001) Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord. 12, 265–80]. The present study followed on from this report by asking whether the deficits seen in dementia of the Alzheimer's type were specific to this condition, or whether they would also be seen in another common neurodegenerative syndrome, frontotemporal dementia. To investigate this important issue, we examined memory for object–location pairs and visual recognition memory for novel patterns using two tests, the Paired Associates Learning and Matching to Sample tasks, from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery. The performance of a subset of the patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type described by Swainson et al., selected on the basis of age and education, was compared with matched groups of frontal variant frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia and control subjects. In contrast to the patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type, who showed significant impairment on both memory tests, the two frontotemporal dementia groups did not perform significantly poorer compared with control subjects on nearly all memory measures, other than ‘memory score’ from the paired associates learning task. These findings confirm that tests of episodic memory, especially for the location of objects in space, may be useful in the early diagnosis and differentiation of dementia of the Alzheimer's type.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1468-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to develop a new natural preservative system making up for the weak points of chitosan as a preservative. As reported in a previous manuscript (20th IFSCC Congress, Cannes, France, 1998), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of water-soluble chitosan against bacteria and yeast were 0.9–3.0 mg mL−1, whereas MICs of chitosan against Aspergillus niger were over 5.0 mg mL−1. However, the result of recent study showed that the MICs of Inula helenium L. extract against A. niger were below 1.0 mg mL−1. Thus, we could develop a new preservative system containing both chitosan and I. helenium L. extract named CI-mixture. MICs of CI-mixture against bacteria and fungi (yeast and mould) were 2.0–4.0 mg mL−1. When 10.0% of the mixture (the ratio of chitosan to I. helenium L. extract = 7.5% : 2.5%) was applied to cosmetic formulae such as skin lotion, milk lotion, cream and pack, it revealed appropriate preservative efficacy. Our result of the patch test also showed that this preservative system reduced skin irritation by about 30–50%, as compared to the organic preservative system. Therefore, the good natural preservative system including chitosan and Inula helenium L. extract could be incorporated in cosmetic formulations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: There have been few reported cases of occupational asthma induced by Pinellia ternata (Banha), and the mechanism responsible for this type of asthma is still undetermined. We report a case of Banha-induced occupational asthma with IgE-mediated mechanism. The patient had positive skin responses to Banha extract and Banha-specific bronchial challenge elicited an early asthmatic response. The serum-specific IgE binding to Banha extract was detectable and completely inhibited with the additions of 0.1 µg/mL of Banha extract on ELISA inhibition. Seven IgE binding components to Banha extract (6.5, 22, 24, 32, 34, and 48 kDa) were detected using SDS–PAGE and immunoblot analysis. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that P. ternata (Banha)-derived allergens are able to cause IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Steroid hormones modulate a variety of physiological functions in the hypothalamus. We attempted to identify steroid-regulated genes in the rat preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus by comparing differentially expressed mRNAs. Adult female rats were ovariectomized and, 1 week later, a silastic capsule containing 17β-oestradiol (180 µg/ml) was subcutaneously implanted. After 2 days, a single injection of progesterone (1 mg) was administered at 10.00 h and rats were killed at 17.00 h on the same day. Differential-display polymerase chain reaction followed by Northern blot analysis showed that 10 clones were differentially regulated. Using homology search in Genbank, three genes were identified as sodium, potassium-ATPase β1, protein kinase C-binding Nell-homologue protein and evectin-1. Further characterization of 10 clones showed that the expression patterns were tissue-specific and differentially regulated during puberty. Among these, mRNAs for protein kinase C-binding Nell-homologue protein, evectin-1 and human CGI-118 protein-like gene were induced after vagina opening, and differentially expressed during the oestrous cycle. Taken together, several steroid-regulated genes identified in the present study may play an important role in regulating hypothalamic functions, including puberty and the oestrous cycle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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