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  • 1
    ISSN: 1524-475X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have treated superficial skin lesions using pulsed carbon dioxide laser with scanner (NIDEK COL-1040). We can choose the shape, size and power of irradiation programmed in the scanner. It makes the treatment more effective and uniform to combine the scanner mode with the pulse mode. However, for a lesion of complicated shape, it is difficult to avoid skin damage caused by multiple irradiations to a small area and/or irradiation to the normal skin. The result may be unsatisfactory with pigmentation or unsightly scar in such case. As the water-solvability is a characteristic of the carbon dioxide laser beam, we used water film around the lesion to avoid unexpected irradiation to the normal skin. This method provided us better results.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148-5018 , USA , and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: Atrial dilatation associated with chronic volume overload (CVO) plays an important role in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Methods and Results: CVO-induced atrial dilatation was created in Japanese white rabbits using arteriovenous shunt formation for 6 weeks. Epicardial action potentials were measured from both atria in Langendorff-perfused sham-operated control hearts (n = 8) and in CVO hearts (n = 8) using high-resolution optical mapping techniques. The left atrial diameter was greater in CVO hearts (16.0 ± 0.4 mm) compared to control hearts (11.0 ± 0.8 mm). During steady-state pacing, right and left atrial conduction velocities were significantly lower in CVO hearts compared to control hearts (P 〈 0.01). Rapid atrial pacing did not induce atrial tachyarrhythmia (AT) in any control hearts. However, in seven of eight CVO hearts 16 episodes of AT were induced, of which 9 exhibited a single reentrant circuit. The remaining 7 episodes exhibited a focal pattern of excitation without evidence of reentry. Interestingly, the activation rate was higher during reentry (16.1 ± 1.5 Hz) compared to focal AT (9.8 ± 1.0 Hz). In addition, 15 of 16 episodes occurred in the posterior left atrium (PLA). In all seven CVO hearts, AT was self-sustained for more than 10 minutes. Conclusion: CVO caused atrial dilatation, conduction slowing, and AT associated with reentrant and focal excitation originating from the PLA. These results suggest that the PLA may play an important role in AT induction associated with CVO-induced atrial dilation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Reentrant Circuit of Idiopathic LV Tachycardia. The exact reentrant circuit of verapamilsensitive idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT) remains unclear. This case report demonstrates the reentrant circuit of ILVT. A 20-pole electrode catheter was placed along the left posterior fascicle during electrophysiologic study. ILVT was reproducibly induced by programmed ventricular stimulation. During the tachycardia, sequential diastolic potentials bridging the entire diastolic period were observed in the recordings from the electrodes positioned from left ventricular mid-septum to inferoapical septum. The slow conduction zone appeared to be composed of a false tendon in this patient. Entrainment of the ILVT from the right ventricular outflow tract at a different pacing cycle length revealed that a dominant conduction delay occurred at the proximal site of the slow conduction zone. Entrainment studies from several sites on the left ventricular septum confirmed that these sites where sequential electrical activity was recorded were included within the reentrant circuit. However, the left posterior fascicle itself seemed to be a bystander. This report provides the direct evidence of macroreentry as the underlying mechanism of this ILVT, adjacent to the left posterior fascicle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Three-dimensional photonic crystals with a diamond lattice structure consisting of 5 × 5 × 5 unit cells with the unit cell dimension of 15 mm were fabricated using TiO2-based ceramic particles dispersed epoxy by stereolithography. The diamond lattice showed a perfect band gap between 14.3 and 15.8 GHz. An air cavity defect with a rectangular shape (15 mm × 45 mm × 15 mm) was introduced at the center of the crystal by extracting 3 unit cells in order to investigate the shape effect of the defect on the formation of localized defect modes of electromagnetic wave. When microwaves were radiated normal to the wide sides (45 mm × 15 mm) of the rectangular shape defect, a sharp localized mode appeared at the middle of the band gap. However, no localized mode was observed for incident waves normal to the smaller side (15 mm × 15 mm) because of the symmetry mismatching between internal eigenmodes in the defect cavity and incident plane waves. The mode analysis using a simple cavity model showed the penetration of the electric field of resonant modes about 2.4 mm into the host lattice.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Ceramic photonic crystals with diamond structure were fabricated using stereolithography and successive sintering. The green body of an epoxy resin incorporating 10 vol% TiO2–SiO2 was formed by stereolithography and then heated in air at 1100°–1400°C for 2 h. The sintered products maintained the diamond structure with a linear shrinkage ratio of about 57% and a porosity of 38%. The ceramic photonic crystal with eight unit cells showed a photonic band gap at the center frequency of 23.5 GHz. This fabrication method of three-dimensional (3D) ceramic photonic crystals is applicable to other 3D structural ceramics and does not require any molding techniques.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1551-2916
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Mullite–ZrO2 composites have been fabricated by attrition milling a powder mixture of zircon, alumina, and aluminum metal with MgO or TiO2 as sintering additives, heating at 1100°C to oxidize the aluminum metal, and consolidation by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The influence of the SPS temperature on the formation of mullite, and the density and the mechanical properties of the resulting composites have been studied. For the mullite–zirconia composites without sintering additives, the mullite formation was accomplished at 1540°C. In contrast, for the composites having MgO and TiO2, the formation temperature dropped to 1460°C. The composites without sintering additives were almost fully dense (99.9% relative density) and retained a larger amount of tetragonal zirconia. Those materials attained the best mechanical properties (E=214 GPa and KIC=6 MPa·m1/2). To highlight the advantages of using the SPS technique, the obtained results have been compared with the characteristics of a mullite–zirconia composite prepared by the conventional reaction-sintering process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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