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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd/Inc.
    Contact dermatitis 50 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Germall 115 and Germall II are well known cosmetic preservatives, widely used as such since the early 1970’s and 1980’s, respectively. This investigation reveals that they have mistakenly been regarded as pure chemical entities with specific structures by the majority of the chemical society. In fact Germall 115 and Germall II both consist of complex mixtures of numerous and fast degradable allantoin-formaldehyde condensation products and may not even contain the conventionally assigned chemical structures of imidazolidinyl urea (Germall 115) and diazolidinyl urea (Germall II). Equilibrium between different structures may be formed in different cosmetic formulations/test materials. This may have led to the discrepancies in the literature: Are the Germalls themselves sensitizers or are the allergic reactions caused by formaldehyde release? The identification and structure assignment of (4-hydroxymethyl-2,5-dioxo-imidazolidin-4-yl)-urea (HU) will be presented, as it is the major and chemically stable degradation product of both Diazolidinyl urea and Imidazolidinyl urea. A guinea pig maximization test has been performed to determine the potential of HU to induce delayed contact hypersensibility in guinea pigs. Separate chemically stable TRUE Test patches containing the mixtures have shown clinical efficacy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd/Inc.
    Contact dermatitis 50 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  The need for prevention to reduce the number of occupational hand eczema is high. Occupational hand eczema is the most frequently recognised work-related disease in Denmark. Previous findings have shown that almost half of all cases develop a chronic condition with persistent dermatitis, and the annual cost to society is immense.Aims:  The aim of this study was to survey the trends and development of occupational hand eczema in Denmark and thereby help to ensure future successful prevention of chronic disabling occupational hand eczema.Methods:  758 patients with recognised occupational hand eczema were included prospectively in the period October 2001- November 2002. Data on diagnoses, disease duration, severity, absence from work and occupation was obtained from The Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries and an additional questionnaire was administered by mail.Results:  621 patients answered the questionnaire (response rate 82%). Irritant contact dermatitis was the most frequent diagnosis and the female/male ratio was 2:1. High prevalence was found in particularly wet occupations. 19 per cent had sick leave more than 5 weeks per year and the mean disease duration was 4.8 years (median 2.1 years). 68.2% had chronic changes.Conclusion:  The results showed a marked gender difference in the pattern of diagnosis and occupation. The impact of occupational hand eczema is still high with prolonged absence from work and a high percentage of chronic disease. The results of the study give important suggestions for future preventive strategies for health authorities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction mediated by allergen specific T-lymphocytes. Allergen exposure leads to the activation of specific T-lymphocytes, which subsequently start to produce and release a vast array of cytokines and chemokines. However, the list of relevant genes taking part in the elicitation phase of contact dermatitis is not complete. In this study, we evaluate the use of the high-density microarray technology, which enable us to assess the global gene expression in allergen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We included 3 chromium-allergic patients and 3 non-allergic controls in the study. Cultures of PBMC were established from each participant and stimulated with 100 ug/ul CrCl3 or media alone. The cell cultures were grown for 24 hours and the gene expression was analysed using an Affymetrix GeneChip(R) Array. Of the genes that exhibited differences of expression (p 〈 0.01) in allergen-activated PBMC from patients compared to controls, 54%(159/294) displayed increased activity and 46%(136/294) displayed decreased activity. Of the 159 up-regulated genes, 41 genes had a fold change above 1.50 and 30 genes among the 136 down-regulated genes had a fold change below -1.5. A significant number of the genes that showed differential expression in the cell cultures established from the allergic patients are known to be involved in immune responses and inflammation. The data indicates that the method of microarrays is a valuable tool for investigating the gene expression profile in our model system for allergic contact dermatitis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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