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  • Blackwell Science Ltd  (6)
  • 2000-2004  (6)
  • 1980-1984
  • 2003  (6)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The sodium-vitamin C co-transporter SVCT2 is primarily responsible for the accumulation of the important antioxidant ascorbate into brain cells. In vitro studies have demonstrated strong expression of this transporter in cultured astrocytes, whereas in situ hybridization analysis has so far detected SVCT2 only in neurons. In the present study, we examined the response of SVCT2 mRNA expression in the brain to focal ischemia induced for 2 h by unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. The mRNA expression patterns of SVCT2 and the glutamate-activated immediate early gene Arc were investigated at 2 and 22 h after ischemia. SVCT2 and Arc mRNA expression was lost in the ischemic core at both time points. In areas outside the core, Arc was strongly up-regulated, primarily at 2 h, whereas SVCT2 showed an increase at 2 and 22 h. SVCT2 expression was increased in neurons as well as in astrocytes, providing the first evidence for SVCT2 expression in astrocytes in situ. These findings underscore the importance of ascorbate as a neuroprotective agent and may have implications for therapeutic strategies. In addition, the increase of SVCT2 in astrocytes after ischemia suggests that cultured astrocytes are exposed to chronic oxidative stress.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Recent studies of antidandruff shampoos or tonics containing antifungal or antibacterial agents produced effects suggestive of a potential hair growth benefit.Objectives  The purpose of this 6-month, 200-patient, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel-group clinical study was to assess the hair growth benefits of a 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo. The efficacy of a 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo (used daily), was compared with that of a 5% minoxidil topical solution (applied twice daily), a placebo shampoo and a combination of the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo and the 5% minoxidil topical solution.Methods  Two hundred healthy men between the ages of 18 and 49 years (inclusive) exhibiting Hamilton–Norwood type III vertex or type IV baldness were enrolled. Total hair counts, the primary efficacy measure, were obtained using fibre-optic microscopy and a computer-assisted, manual hair count method. Secondary measures of efficacy included assessments of hair diameter, as well as patient and investigator global assessments of improvement in hair growth. These were based on photographs of the scalp using both midline and vertex views.Results  Hair count results showed a significant (P 〈 0·05) net increase in total visible hair counts for the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo, the 5% minoxidil topical solution, and the combination treatment groups relative to the placebo shampoo after 9 weeks of treatment. The relative increase in hair count for the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo was slightly less than half that for the minoxidil topical solution and was essentially maintained throughout the 26-week treatment period. No advantage was seen in using both the 5% minoxidil topical solution and the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo. A small increase in hair diameter was observed for the minoxidil-containing treatment groups at week 17. Assessments of global improvements by the patients and investigator generally showed the benefit of 5% minoxidil. The benefit of the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo used alone tended (P 〈 0·1) to be apparent only to the investigator.Conclusions  Hair count results show a modest and sustained improvement in hair growth with daily use of a 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo over a 26-week treatment period.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background The recently introduced TOSCA monitor (Linde Medical Sensors AG, Basel, Switzerland) combines pulse oximetry (SpO2) and transcutaneous PCO2 (PtcCO2) monitoring in a single ear sensor. The aim of the present study was to evaluate accuracy of the TOSCA monitor to estimate SaO2 and PaCO2 in anaesthetized children.Methods With approval of the hospital ethical committee and after obtaining informed parental consent, the TOSCA sensor was attached to one ear lobe of anaesthetized children in whom arterial access was established for cardiac catheterization or invasive blood pressure monitoring. SpO〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:11555645:PAN1146:PAN_1146_mu1" location="equation/PAN_1146_mu1.gif"/〉 and PtcCO2 as well as SpO〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:11555645:PAN1146:PAN_1146_mu2" location="equation/PAN_1146_mu2.gif"/〉 and PECO2 values from the anaesthesia monitoring (AS5; Datex-Ohmeda, Helsinki, Finland) were compared with SaO2 and PaCO2 values from arterial blood gas analysis. Corresponding data were compared using Bland Altman bias analysis.Results A total of 111 blood samples were taken from 60 children (median age: 4.41 years; 0.35–16.13 years). SaO2 values ranged from 63 to 100% (median: 98.7%), PaCO2 ranged from 3.8 to 7.3 kPa (median: 4.6 kPa). Mean difference (±2 sd) between PaCO2 and PtcCO2 was –0.035 kPa (±0.74 kPa), between PaCO2 and PECO2 0.002 kPa (0.73 kPa), respectively (1 kPa = 7.3 mmHg). Bias and precision between SaO2 and SpO〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:11555645:PAN1146:PAN_1146_mu3" location="equation/PAN_1146_mu3.gif"/〉 was –0.63% (±2.77%) and 0.13% (±4.52%) between SaO2 and SpO〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:11555645:PAN1146:PAN_1146_mu4" location="equation/PAN_1146_mu4.gif"/〉.Conclusions In anaesthetized children, the TOSCA ear sensor allows estimation of SaO2 and PaCO2, comparable in accuracy to endtidal capnometry and finger pulse oximetry. This makes the TOSCA monitor a helpful add-on to respiratory monitoring in anaesthetized children, in situations, in which endtidal capnometry is unreliable or difficult to establish.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A congenital laryngotracheo-oesophageal cleft is a rare airway malformation which results from incomplete separation of the larynx and trachea from the hypopharynx and oesophagus. Patients usually present with stridor, aspiration and cyanosis associated with feeding. For early diagnosis, a high index of suspicion is needed. Unless an appropriate diagnostic approach is taken, the diagnosis can be missed. The successful ventilation of a neonate with the Laryngeal Mask AirwayTM is described.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: We present the annual patterns of net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange (NEE) of CO2 and H2O observed from a 447 m tall tower sited within a mixed forest in northern Wisconsin, USA. The methodology for determining NEE from eddy-covariance flux measurements at 30, 122 and 396 m above the ground, and from CO2 mixing ratio measurements at 11, 30, 76, 122, 244 and 396 m is described. The annual cycle of CO2 mixing ratio in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is also discussed, and the influences of local NEE and large-scale advection are estimated. During 1997 gross ecosystem productivity (947−18 g C m−2 yr−1), approximately balanced total ecosystem respiration (963±19 g C m−2 yr−1), and NEE of CO2 was close to zero (16±19 g C m−2 yr−1 emitted into the atmosphere). The error bars represent the standard error of the cumulative daily NEE values. Systematic errors are also assessed. The identified systematic uncertainties in NEE of CO2 are less than 60 g C m−2 yr−1. The seasonal pattern of NEE of CO2 was highly correlated with leaf-out and leaf-fall, and soil thaw and freeze, and was similar to purely deciduous forest sites. The mean daily NEE of CO2 during the growing season (June through August) was −1.3 g C m−2 day−1, smaller than has been reported for other deciduous forest sites. NEE of water vapor largely followed the seasonal pattern of NEE of CO2, with a lag in the spring when water vapor fluxes increased before CO2 uptake. In general, the Bowen ratios were high during the dormant seasons and low during the growing season. Evapotranspiration normalized by potential evapotranspiration showed the opposite pattern. The seasonal course of the CO2 mixing ratio in the ABL at the tower led the seasonal pattern of NEE of CO2 in time: in spring, CO2 mixing ratios began to decrease prior to the onset of daily net uptake of CO2 by the forest, and in fall mixing ratios began to increase before the forest became a net source for CO2 to the atmosphere. Transport as well as local NEE of CO2 are shown to be important components of the ABL CO2 budget at all times of the year.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Anterior cingulate cortex is comprised of perigenual and midcingulate regions based on cytology, imaging and connections. Its anterior (aMCC) and posterior (pMCC) parts and transition to posterior area 23 were evaluated in six human cingulate gyri with Nissl staining and immunoreactions for neuron-specific nuclear binding protein and intermediate neurofilament proteins (NFP), and their pain and emotion functions evaluated in standard coordinates. Morphological differences included a poorly differentiated layer III with few NFP-expressing neurons in aMCC and a very dense layer Va with small and large pyramids intermingled in pMCC. The density of NFP-positive, layer Vb neurons was higher in pMCC than in aMCC. The junction of pMCC with area 23 had a dysgranular area 23d with clumps of layer IV neurons and a very dense layer Va. Each case was co-registered to standard coordinates and the regional borders identified and measured. Although both regions had overall equivalent activations during noxious cutaneous thermal stimulation, the posterior two-thirds of pMCC was relatively inactive. About 60% of fear-induced activity was in aMCC, sadness and happiness activated perigenual cortex, and neither were activated with non-emotion tasks. Thus, pain activity is coupled to fear in aMCC, while other MCC processing is not related to affect. Beyond midcingulate duality, this is the first report of a very dense layer Va for areas p24′ and 23 and the features of transitional area 23d. The MCC dichotomy suggests that two circuits differentially regulate the two cingulate motor areas, and involvement of aMCC in pain and fear make it selectively vulnerable to chronic pain and stress syndromes.
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