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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Physical maps of the chromosomes of three strains of Streptomyces ambofaciens were constructed by ordering AseI fragments generated from the genomic DNA as a single linear chromosome of about 8 Mb. The physical maps of the three strains were very similar. For strain DSM40697, a DraI map was obtained by positioning the DraI sites relative to the AseI map. Eighteen genetic markers as well as the deletable and amplifiable region were assigned to the AseI and DraI fragments in this strain. The resulting genetic map resembled that of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The twoterminal AseI fragments exhibited retarded pulsed-field gel electrophoresis mobility, demonstrating that proteins are covalently bound at this position. A restriction map of this region was made using four additional endonucleases. Repeated sequences present at both ends of the chromosome were mapped as long terminal inverted repeats stretching over 210 kb. This corresponds to the longest terminal inverted repeats so far characterized. The deletable region of S. ambofaciens was localized at the chromosomal extremities.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Cytokines are involved in the etiology of different disorders of the CNS. For a better understanding of their pathogenic role, we analyzed signal transduction pathways mediating the interleukin (IL)-1β-induced synthesis of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in the human astrocytoma cell line U373 MG. Both protein kinase C and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were involved in IL-6 and TNFα gene expression by IL-1β. In contrast, protein tyrosine kinases were only necessary for expression of the IL-6 gene. Whereas activation of protein kinase A was able to induce expression of the IL-6 gene, it did not induce TNFα gene expression and was not involved in IL-1β-induced IL-6 and TNFα gene expression. Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB by IL-1β involved ROIs, whereas the IL-1β-induced activation of the transcription factor AP-1 was mediated via protein kinase C. Our findings provide the basis for the development of specific drugs for the treatment of disorders of the CNS in which cytokines play a pathogenic role.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The sodium-vitamin C co-transporter SVCT2 is primarily responsible for the accumulation of the important antioxidant ascorbate into brain cells. In vitro studies have demonstrated strong expression of this transporter in cultured astrocytes, whereas in situ hybridization analysis has so far detected SVCT2 only in neurons. In the present study, we examined the response of SVCT2 mRNA expression in the brain to focal ischemia induced for 2 h by unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. The mRNA expression patterns of SVCT2 and the glutamate-activated immediate early gene Arc were investigated at 2 and 22 h after ischemia. SVCT2 and Arc mRNA expression was lost in the ischemic core at both time points. In areas outside the core, Arc was strongly up-regulated, primarily at 2 h, whereas SVCT2 showed an increase at 2 and 22 h. SVCT2 expression was increased in neurons as well as in astrocytes, providing the first evidence for SVCT2 expression in astrocytes in situ. These findings underscore the importance of ascorbate as a neuroprotective agent and may have implications for therapeutic strategies. In addition, the increase of SVCT2 in astrocytes after ischemia suggests that cultured astrocytes are exposed to chronic oxidative stress.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The antiepileptic drug lamotrigine was described to exert its effects on neuronal excitability via voltage-gated sodium and calcium, as well as hyperpolarization-activated conductances. In order to define the effects of lamotrigine on the excitability of layer V pyramidal cells of the rat somatosensory cortex we performed patch-clamp recordings from the soma and dendrite of this major cortical output cell type in acute slices. Voltage-clamp experiments revealed the blockade of the persistent sodium current by 50–100 µm lamotrigine as well as by 50 µm of the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin. In somatic current-clamp studies lamotrigine, in a therapeutic concentration range, depolarizes the membrane potential reflecting the activation of the hyperpolarization-activated current. This depolarization reduces the rheobase and increases the spiking frequency at the onset of the spike train. For long depolarizing current pulses under lamotrigine, however, a use-dependent block of sodium channels reduces spiking frequency and spike amplitude. The depolarization due to 50–100 µm lamotrigine reduces additionally the critical frequency of back-propagating spikes necessary to elicit a dendritic calcium action potential. Ten to thirty micromolar lamotrigine, in contrast, did not change the critical frequency. Lamotrigine blocks long-lasting, high frequent spiking activity due to its use-dependent sodium channel block, while burst activity is not impaired due to a depolarizing shift of the membrane potential. This drug therefore dampens epileptic activity while leaving the somatodendritic association in layer V pyramidal cells intact.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Recent studies of antidandruff shampoos or tonics containing antifungal or antibacterial agents produced effects suggestive of a potential hair growth benefit.Objectives  The purpose of this 6-month, 200-patient, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel-group clinical study was to assess the hair growth benefits of a 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo. The efficacy of a 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo (used daily), was compared with that of a 5% minoxidil topical solution (applied twice daily), a placebo shampoo and a combination of the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo and the 5% minoxidil topical solution.Methods  Two hundred healthy men between the ages of 18 and 49 years (inclusive) exhibiting Hamilton–Norwood type III vertex or type IV baldness were enrolled. Total hair counts, the primary efficacy measure, were obtained using fibre-optic microscopy and a computer-assisted, manual hair count method. Secondary measures of efficacy included assessments of hair diameter, as well as patient and investigator global assessments of improvement in hair growth. These were based on photographs of the scalp using both midline and vertex views.Results  Hair count results showed a significant (P 〈 0·05) net increase in total visible hair counts for the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo, the 5% minoxidil topical solution, and the combination treatment groups relative to the placebo shampoo after 9 weeks of treatment. The relative increase in hair count for the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo was slightly less than half that for the minoxidil topical solution and was essentially maintained throughout the 26-week treatment period. No advantage was seen in using both the 5% minoxidil topical solution and the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo. A small increase in hair diameter was observed for the minoxidil-containing treatment groups at week 17. Assessments of global improvements by the patients and investigator generally showed the benefit of 5% minoxidil. The benefit of the 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo used alone tended (P 〈 0·1) to be apparent only to the investigator.Conclusions  Hair count results show a modest and sustained improvement in hair growth with daily use of a 1% pyrithione zinc shampoo over a 26-week treatment period.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Acne is a common skin disorder, but epidemiological data from the general population obtained by examination are scarce. Clinical experience suggests an association between smoking and acne, although confirmatory evidence from appropriate studies is lacking.Objectives To determine the prevalence and demographic factors of acne in a general population sample and to investigate the association of smoking and acne on a qualitative and quantitative level.Methods In a cross-sectional study, 896 citizens (aged 1–87 years, median 42) of the City of Hamburg were dermatologically examined. The prevalence and severity of acne were recorded and further information on demographic variables, medical history, and alcohol and cigarette consumption were obtained by a standardized interview.Results According to the clinical examination, acne was present in 26·8% overall, and was more prevalent in men (29·9%) than women (23·7%) (odds ratio, OR 1·37, 95% confidence interval, CI 1·01–1·87). Prevalence followed a significant linear trend over age with peak prevalence between 14 and 29 years (P 〈 0·001). The reported age at onset was significantly lower in women than men (P = 0·015). According to multiple logistic regression analyses acne prevalence was significantly higher in active smokers (40·8%, OR 2·04, 95% CI 1·40–2·99) as compared with non-smokers (25·2%). A significant linear relationship between acne prevalence and number of cigarettes smoked daily was obtained (trend test: P 〈 0·0001). In addition, a significant dose-dependent relationship between acne severity and daily cigarette consumption was shown by linear regression analysis (P = 0·001).Conclusions Smoking is a clinically important contributory factor to acne prevalence and severity.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A multicentre study was conducted to compare clinical safety and efficacy of adapalene 0·1% solution and tretinoin 0·025% gel, both topical treatments for acne, in a once-daily dosage regimen for 12 weeks. A total of 297 patients were enrolled by eight investigators in this randomized, investigator-masked study in a parallel group design. An open label period using adapalene followed this study to assess the long-term safety of adapalene solution. Adapalene and tretinoin proved to be clinically and statistically effective in treating acne by reducing inflammatory (47% and 50%, respectively) and non-inflammatory lesions (57% and 54%) as compared to baseline. When comparing patients who had 75% or greater improvement in open comedones, adapalene was shown to be significantly more effective than tretinoin. No serious adverse event was reported during this study, including during the long-term period. The reactions that occurred were similar between treatments, i.e. burning, pruritus, scaling, dryness and erythema.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background The recently introduced TOSCA monitor (Linde Medical Sensors AG, Basel, Switzerland) combines pulse oximetry (SpO2) and transcutaneous PCO2 (PtcCO2) monitoring in a single ear sensor. The aim of the present study was to evaluate accuracy of the TOSCA monitor to estimate SaO2 and PaCO2 in anaesthetized children.Methods With approval of the hospital ethical committee and after obtaining informed parental consent, the TOSCA sensor was attached to one ear lobe of anaesthetized children in whom arterial access was established for cardiac catheterization or invasive blood pressure monitoring. SpO〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:11555645:PAN1146:PAN_1146_mu1" location="equation/PAN_1146_mu1.gif"/〉 and PtcCO2 as well as SpO〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:11555645:PAN1146:PAN_1146_mu2" location="equation/PAN_1146_mu2.gif"/〉 and PECO2 values from the anaesthesia monitoring (AS5; Datex-Ohmeda, Helsinki, Finland) were compared with SaO2 and PaCO2 values from arterial blood gas analysis. Corresponding data were compared using Bland Altman bias analysis.Results A total of 111 blood samples were taken from 60 children (median age: 4.41 years; 0.35–16.13 years). SaO2 values ranged from 63 to 100% (median: 98.7%), PaCO2 ranged from 3.8 to 7.3 kPa (median: 4.6 kPa). Mean difference (±2 sd) between PaCO2 and PtcCO2 was –0.035 kPa (±0.74 kPa), between PaCO2 and PECO2 0.002 kPa (0.73 kPa), respectively (1 kPa = 7.3 mmHg). Bias and precision between SaO2 and SpO〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:11555645:PAN1146:PAN_1146_mu3" location="equation/PAN_1146_mu3.gif"/〉 was –0.63% (±2.77%) and 0.13% (±4.52%) between SaO2 and SpO〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:11555645:PAN1146:PAN_1146_mu4" location="equation/PAN_1146_mu4.gif"/〉.Conclusions In anaesthetized children, the TOSCA ear sensor allows estimation of SaO2 and PaCO2, comparable in accuracy to endtidal capnometry and finger pulse oximetry. This makes the TOSCA monitor a helpful add-on to respiratory monitoring in anaesthetized children, in situations, in which endtidal capnometry is unreliable or difficult to establish.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A congenital laryngotracheo-oesophageal cleft is a rare airway malformation which results from incomplete separation of the larynx and trachea from the hypopharynx and oesophagus. Patients usually present with stridor, aspiration and cyanosis associated with feeding. For early diagnosis, a high index of suspicion is needed. Unless an appropriate diagnostic approach is taken, the diagnosis can be missed. The successful ventilation of a neonate with the Laryngeal Mask AirwayTM is described.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of fish biology 65 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Using four different sperm types from brown trout Salmo trutta fario(Salmonidae), chub Leuciscus cephalus(Cyprinidae), burbot Lota lota(Gadidae) and African catfish Clarias gariepinus(Clariidae) the effect of inorganic (cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, zinc and nitrite) and organic (cyclohexane and 2,4-dichlorophenol) environmental pollutants on sperm motility was investigated. Spermatozoa were activated in double distilled water containing the different test substances and the motility was compared to controls of similar pH. From the investigated motility variables the sperm motility rate and swimming velocity reacted most to the environmental pollutants whereby the changes depended on the species and on the test substance. African catfish spermatozoa were the most resistant, chub and burbot spermatozoa showed medium resistance and brown trout spermatozoa were the most sensitive to the pollutants. With exception of 2,4-dichlorophenol and zinc the effective concentrations of the tested pollutants exceeded the recommendation for surface waters 100–10·000-fold and were in a range lethal for the fish themselves. Therefore, it was concluded that fish sperm motility is not a suitable marker for risk assessment of environmental pollutants.
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