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  • Blackwell Science Ltd  (5)
  • Blackwell Science Ltd.  (1)
  • 2000-2004  (6)
  • 2000  (6)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Oxidative stress induced by acute complex I inhibition with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion activated biphasically the stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the early transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Early JNK activation was dependent on mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) activity, whereas late-phase JNK activation and the cleavage of signaling proteins Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) kinase (MEKK)-1 appeared to be ANT-independent. Early NF-κB activation depended on MEK, later activation required an intact electron transport chain (ETC), and Parkinson's disease (PD) cybrid (mitochondrial transgenic cytoplasmic hybrid) cells had increased basal NF-κB activation. Mitochondria appear capable of signaling ETC impairment through MAPK modules and inducing protective NF-κB responses, which are increased by PD mitochondrial genes amplified in cybrid cells. Irreversible commitment to apoptosis in this cell model may derive from loss of Raf-1 and cleavage/activation of MEKK-1, processes reported in other models to be caspase-mediated. Therapeutic strategies that reduce mitochondrial activation of proapoptotic MAPK modules, i.e., JNK, and enhance survival pathways, i.e., NF-κB, may offer neuroprotection in this debilitating disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of advanced nursing 31 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of advanced nursing 31 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of advanced nursing 31 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common extraintestinal infection, and Escherichia coli is by far the most common causative organism. Uropathogenic E. coli possess traits that distinguish them from commensal strains of E. coli, such as secretion systems that allow virulence factors to be targeted to extracytoplasmic compartments. One of at least five characterized secretion mechanisms is the autotransporter system, which involves translocation of a protein across the inner membrane, presumably via the sec system, and across the outer membrane through a β-barrel porin structure formed by the carboxy-terminus autotransporter domain. We identified a 107 kDa protein that was expressed significantly more often by E. coli strains associated with the clinical syndrome of acute pyelonephritis than by faecal strains (P = 0.029). We isolated the protein from E. coli CFT073, a strain cultured from the blood and urine of a patient with acute pyelonephritis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence showed highest similarity to two known SPATE (serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae) proteins, Pet and EspC. Using a 509 bp probe from the 5′ region of pet, 10 cosmid clones of an E. coli CFT073 gene library were positive for hybridization. From one cosmid clone, a 7.5 kb EcoRI restriction fragment, which reacted strongly with the probe, was shown to include the entire 3885 bp gene. The predicted 142 kDa protein product possesses the three domains that are typical of SPATE autotransporters: an unusually long signal sequence of 49 amino acids; a 107 kDa passenger domain containing a consensus serine protease active site (GDSGSG); and a C-terminal autotransporter domain of 30 kDa. The protein exhibited serine protease activity and displayed cytopathic activity on VERO primary kidney, HK-2 bladder and HEp-2 cell lines; the name Sat (secreted autotransporter toxin) was derived from these properties. In addition, Sat antibodies were present in the serum of mice infected with E. coli CFT073. Based upon its association with pathogenic isolates, its cytopathic phenotype and its ability to elicit a strong antibody response after infection, we postulate that Sat represents a novel virulence determinant of uropathogenic E. coli.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The fim switch of Escherichia coli is responsible for phase-variable expression of type 1 fimbriae. Switching in the ON-to-OFF and OFF-to-ON directions is promoted by the FimB recombinase, while the FimE recombinase directs switching predominantly in the ON-to-OFF direction. The effects of local promoter activity and the H-NS nucleoid-associated protein on inversion of the switch were assessed. In contrast to FimB-mediated inversion, inversion of the switch by the FimE recombinase was unaffected by the H-NS status of the cell. Transcription towards the switch from within a translationally inactivated fimE gene was found to bias the switch strongly in the OFF direction, creating a FimE+-like phenotype in the absence of the FimE protein. This biasing was H-NS dependent and was also contingent on transcription from within the switch. These data show that local transcription and a nucleoid-associated protein both contribute to the modulation of a site-specific recombination event on the bacterial chromosome.
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