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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  There are many reports of patients with a severe hydroa vacciniforme (HV)-like eruption in which cutaneous lesions occur in both sun-exposed and non-exposed areas, unlike in true HV. Several patients have died from a malignant haematological neoplasm. In most cases, a latent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection has been detected in the skin lesions.Objectives  To describe the clinical and laboratory features of six additional patients with an EBV-associated HV-like eruption.Methods  The clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features were reviewed. T-cell receptor γ gene rearrangements were studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and heteroduplex analysis. In-situ hybridization was performed to detect mRNA for EBV in skin biopsy specimens. PCR was performed to screen for EBV infection in the skin lesions of three patients and blood of two patients. Photoprovocation with repeated ultraviolet (UV) A exposure was performed in three patients.Results  The severity of the skin lesions and the clinical course varied among the patients. Skin lesions were induced by repeated UVA exposure in three patients and a latent EBV infection was demonstrated in the photoprovoked lesions.Conclusions  Three different clinical courses were found in six patients with an HV-like eruption associated with chronic EBV infection: (i) spontaneous remission; (ii) clearing after photoprotection; and (iii) continuous recurrence irrespective of sun exposure. It is possible that there are two patterns of HV-like eruption associated with chronic EBV infection. One is characterized by recurrent necrotic papulovesicles of the face and the other by nodules and facial swelling. It was demonstrated that the skin lesions could be triggered by repeated UVA exposure in the patients showing recurrent necrotic papulovesicles of the face.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the superfamily of nuclear receptors that heterodimerize with the retinoic X receptor. Agonists of PPAR have been known to play an important role in cellular responses including proliferation and differentiation. The expression and function of PPARs have not been investigated in human melanocytes, although they have been widely demonstrated in keratinocytes of the skin.Objectives  To investigate the expression of PPARs in human melanocytes and the effects of PPAR activators on melanocyte growth and melanogenesis.Methods  We used immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis to determine whether PPARs are expressed in melanocytes. To investigate further expression of PPAR subtypes, reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed using PPAR subtype-specific oligonucleotides. The cell proliferation was measured using the Coulter counter. The effects on pigmentation were investigated with measurement of melanin contents, tyrosinase activity and its expression.Results  The mRNA of all three PPAR subtypes, PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ and PPAR-γ, were expressed in melanocytes. Activators for PPAR-α (WY-14643) and PPAR-γ (ciglitazone) inhibited proliferation of melanocytes in a dose-dependent manner, whereas bezafibrate, a preferential activator for PPAR-β/δ, had no effect. This growth inhibition was accompanied by the morphological change of the melanocytes to an activated form with an increased number of dendrites and enlarged cell area compared with the control. The WY-14643 and ciglitazone also appeared to stimulate the melanin synthesis of melanocytes. This increase in pigmentation was due to stimulation of the tyrosinase activity without an increase in the expression of tyrosinase.Conclusions  PPARs are expressed in human melanocytes and PPAR-α and PPAR-γ activators inhibit melanocyte growth and stimulate melanogenesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Although there is convincing evidence that human B cells can be induced to produce IgE by a combination of interleukin 4 (IL-4) and hydrocortisone (HC) in atopic subjects, it is still uncertain if this performs the same functions in allergen-specific IgE synthesis.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉ObjectiveThis study was designed to investigate the differences of IgE regulation between atopics and nonatopics, interactions of HC with IL-4, and the correlation between in vitro total IgE, allergen-specific IgE synthesis and serum IgE levels.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉MethodsPeripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 16 atopic asthma patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides farinae and seven nonatopic controls were cultured with IL-4 and/or HC. Total IgE and D. farinae-specific IgE in culture supernatant were measured by ELISA and FAST.〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉ResultsIL-4 increased total IgE synthesis in PBMCs from both atopics and nonatopics, whereas, HC had this effect only in some atopics who showed spontaneous IgE production in vitro. HC acted synergistically with IL-4 in total IgE synthesis. Their effects were more remarkable in cases with lower total serum IgE levels. PBMCs from eight of 16 atopics produced D. farinae-specific IgE in vitro either spontaneously or by IL-4 and/or HC. HC had more profound effects than IL-4 in these patients. They also showed higher total IgE synthesis by HC, and higher specific serum IgE levels than the others. IL-4 and/or HC did not induce any D. farinae-specific IgE synthesis by PBMCs from nonatopics.〈section xml:id="abs1-5"〉〈title type="main"〉ConclusionHC had a more profound effect than IL-4 on the induction of D. farinae-specific IgE synthesis in atopic patients with high serum allergen specific IgE levels. Further studies to determine the causes of these effects, such as the presence of long lived allergen specific B cells as the result of the priming effect of IL-4 in vivo, may be needed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Although epidemiological studies have found an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and severe asthma, the causality and underlying mechanism are largely unknown. We hypothesized that C. pneumoniae infection increases the proliferation and enhances the survival of immune and inflammatory cells, resulting in reduced responsiveness to corticosteroids and suggesting that the underlying mechanism is related to a TNF-α-dependent pathway.Methods Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in vitro in the presence or absence of C. pneumoniae infection. Responsiveness to corticosteroids was assayed by adding dexamethasone, and the underlying mechanism was investigated by treating cells with infliximab that is a chimeric anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody. Cellular proliferation and apoptosis was assessed by thymidine uptake and counting apoptotic cells using flow cytometry.Results Cellular proliferation was significantly higher in C. pneumoniae-infected PBMCs than in uninfected PBMCs, which is more prominent in Th2-dominant microenvironment. The anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of corticosteroid were significantly reduced in C. pneumoniae-infected PBMCs compared with uninfected PBMCs. The proliferative effect of C. pneumoniae infection and the reduced response to corticosteroid were effectively reversed by blocking the TNF-α pathway at least partially.Conclusion C. pneumoniae infection enhanced the proliferation and survival of immune and inflammatory cells, resulting in steroid resistance. The reversal of these phenomena by the TNF-α inhibitor suggests that TNF-α may play an important role in the induction of steroid dependence or resistance. A TNF-α inhibitor may therefore be a candidate agent for managing steroid-dependent or -resistant severe asthma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Description: Shuang Li, Yong Suk Cho, Bing Wang, Shuangxi Li, and Jin Jiang Hedgehog (Hh) transduces signals by promoting cell surface accumulation and activation of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-family protein Smoothened (Smo) in Drosophila , but the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of Smo trafficking remains poorly understood. Here, we identified the Cul4–DDB1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex as being essential for Smo ubiquitylation and cell surface clearance. We found that the C-terminal intracellular domain of Smo recruits Cul4–DDB1 through the β subunit of trimeric G protein (Gβ), and that Cul4–DDB1–Gβ promotes the ubiquitylation of both Smo and its binding partner G-protein-coupled-receptor kinase 2 (Gprk2) and induces the internalization and degradation of Smo. Hh dissociates Cul4–DDB1 from Smo by recruiting the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) to phosphorylate DDB1, which disrupts its interaction with Gβ. Inactivation of the Cul4–DDB1 complex resulted in elevated Smo cell surface expression, whereas an excessive amount of Cul4–DDB1 blocked Smo accumulation and attenuated Hh pathway activation. Taken together, our study identifies an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex targeting Smo for ubiquitylation and provides new insight into how Hh signaling regulates Smo trafficking and cell surface expression.
    Keywords: Ubiquitin
    Print ISSN: 0021-9533
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9137
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Company of Biologists
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