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  • 1
    Keywords: CONJUGATE ; PATHOGENESIS ; MEMBRANE ; bilirubin ; DOMAINS ; TRANSPORT ; DOMAIN
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Preexposure of SH-SY5Y cells to the muscarinic agonist carbachol caused a rapid desensitization of subsequent carbachol-stimulated intracellular Ca2+ responses and a slower decrease in the number of receptors at the plasma membrane. Desensitization (to 30% of the control response) was maximal after 1 min of exposure to agonist, whereas the number of cell surface receptors reached a minimum (33% of control) only after 5 min. Following agonist washout, the recovery of response was complete within 12 min, whereas the recovery of surface receptor number reached a plateau at 65% of control after 30 min. Treatment with inhibitors of endocytosis (concanavalin A) or recycling (nigericin) did not affect rapid desensitization but did decrease resensitization, suggesting that receptor cycling is involved in resensitization. Experiments with the irreversible antagonist propylbenzilylcholine mustard demonstrated that the receptor reserve for the Ca2+ response to 1 mM carbachol is ∼50%. Removal of this receptor reserve led to a decrease in the rate of resensitization. We propose that the existence of a receptor reserve might explain the poor correlation between functional response and surface receptor number, and that one of its roles might be to permit rapid resensitization after a significant agonist-induced decrease in surface receptor number. The purpose of receptor cycling might be to allow dephosphorylation (and reactivation) of receptors that have become phosphorylated (and inactivated) in response to agonist stimulation, because the protein phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A significantly reduced resensitization.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Thyroid hormone is an essential modulator of brain development, but little is known about its actions in the adult brain. Hypothyroidism is associated with gene expression changes in both central and peripheral nervous tissue. Functional consequences of adult-onset hypothyroidism include an inability to produce long-term potentiation in rat hippocampus and impaired learning and memory in both rats and man. Long-term potentiation is a form of learning that is dependent on functional N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)-preferring ionotropic glutamate receptors. This work examines the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit mRNA following surgical thyroidectomy with or without thyroid hormone replacement. In situ hybridization histochemistry was used to determine the mRNA levels of the NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, NR2B, the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1, and the kainate receptor subunit KA2. Reducing circulating concentrations of thyroid hormone by surgical removal of the thyroid gland 2 weeks before sacrifice decreased the expression of NR1 mRNA exclusively in the hippocampus. Conversely, hyperthyroidism selectively reduced NR2B mRNA expression in the dorsal hippocampus. Altering thyroid hormone status had no effect on the expression of KA2 or GluR1 subunit mRNA. The regulation of expression of NR1 and NR2B mRNA by thyroid hormone is a novel mechanism for explaining the relationship between thyroid hormone and cognitive function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Hypoglycaemia induced by insulin injection is a powerful stimulus to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and drives the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin from the neurones in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as well as the downstream hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. In some brain regions, hypoglycaemia also provokes increases in extracellular fluid concentrations of glutamate. Regulation of glutamatergic mechanisms could be involved in the control of the HPA axis during hypoglycaemic stress and one potential site of regulation might be at the receptors for glutamate, which are expressed in the PVN. Insulin (2.0 IU/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and the animals were sacrificed 30 min, 180 min and 24 h after injection. The amount of several kainic acid-preferring glutamate receptor mRNAs (i.e. KA2, GluR5 and GluR6) were assessed in the PVN by in situ hybridisation histochemistry. Injection of insulin induced a rapid fall in plasma glucose concentrations, which was mirrored by an increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations. KA2 and GluR5 mRNAs are highly expressed within the rat PVN, and responded to hypoglycaemia with robust increases in expression that endured beyond the period of hypoglycaemia itself. However, GluR6 mRNA is expressed in the areas adjacent to the PVN and hypoglycaemic stress failed to alter expression of this mRNA. These experiments suggest that kainic acid-preferring glutamate receptors are responsive to changes in plasma glucose concentrations and may participate in the activation of the PVN neurones during hypoglycaemic stress.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Public Health 15 (1994), S. 133-156 
    ISSN: 0163-7525
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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