Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Recombinant herpes simplex virus-1 encoding the rat preproenkephalin A (HSVLatEnk1) was generated for driving the expression of preproenkephalin A-derived peptides in dorsal root ganglia of rats in vivo. Three weeks after infection via the hind footpads, quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization experiments showed a strong expression of preproenkephalin A mRNA in lumbar dorsal root ganglia. In addition, a 40–160% increase in radioimmunoassayable Met-enkephalin-like material concentrations was found in the dorsal spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia, respectively, at the lumbar level in HSVLatEnk1-infected rats as compared with animals infected with β-galactosidase-encoding recombinant herpes simplex virus-1 or control rats. These data demonstrate the efficacy of the preproenkephalin A encoding vector and suggest that it should help in elucidating the role of Met-enkephalin-containing primary afferent fibers in pain transmission and/or control.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28K is an anatomical marker that has been associated with resistance to neurodegeneration and with the electrophysiological characteristics of neurons. In this study, we compared the presence of calbindin in dopamine neurons projecting to three distinct functional regions of the striatal complex: the striatum, and the core and the shell of the nucleus accumbens. After iontophoretic injections of Fluoro-Gold in the dopaminergic terminal fields, the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase and calbindin were immunohistochemically assessed in the mesencephalon. It was found that the proportion of cells expressing calbindin was highest in the dopamine cells projecting to the core (72%), intermediate in the cells projecting to the shell (51%) and lowest in the cells projecting to the dorsolateral striatum (2.6%). These results do not support the idea that calbindin is a sufficient condition to confer resistance to neurodegeneration because shell-projecting neurons seem the most resistant to it. The present data also raise the question of the role of calbindin in the differences in firing characteristics among dopamine neurons projecting to the striatal complex.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The dorsolateral striatum, and the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens are three major anatomical regions of the striatal complex. The shell is considered as a part of the extended amygdala, and is involved in the control of motivation and reward. The core and the striatum are considered central to sensory motor integration. In this study we compared the responses of these three regions to mild stress and drugs of abuse by measuring extracellular dopamine (DA) concentrations and Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI). The results are summarrized as follows. (i) In unchallenged conditions, extracellular DA concentrations were highest in the dorsolateral striatum and lowest in the core, whereas Fos-LI was highest in the shell and lowest in the dorsolateral striatum. (ii) After challenges that increase DA by depolarizing DAergic neurons (injection stress or 2 mg/kg morphine), the shell presented the largest increase in DA levels and Fos-LI. (iii) After the administration of a DA-uptake blocker (15 mg/kg cocaine), the percentage increase in DA was still largest in the shell. However, the absolute increase in DA and Fos-LI in the shell and the dorsolateral striatum were similar. (iv) After a full D1 agonist (SKF82958), Fos-LI was highest in the shell and lowest in the dorsolateral striatum. In conclusion, the nucleus accumbens shell seems to be the area of the striatal complex most functionally reactive to stress and drugs of abuse. However, the dorsolateral striatum and the core appear functionally distinct, as for most of the parameters studied these two regions differed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The developmental changes of intracellular calcium release channels of mouse neocortex were studied at the onset of neurogenesis, which occurs between embryonic days E11 and E17. The three main isoforms of the two families of intracellular calcium release channels, namely the inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) and the ryanodine receptors (RyR), were detected by their transcripts in the cerebral hemispheres, as early as stage E11. The major isoforms of each family, IP3R-1 and RyR-2, were found at the protein level by Western blot analysis. Expression of these proteins increases progressively throughout brain development. Their localization in coronal sections of cortex has been observed by immunodetection from E12, and compared to the TuJ1 (anti-class III β-tubulin antibody) neuronal specific labelling. The expression of both channels is greatly enhanced after E12, and both were seen to be present in most of the proliferative and neuronal cells of the slice. Between E12 and E13, there is a striking transition in the pattern of calcium release elicited by specific agonists of these channels, thimerosal for IP3R and caffeine for RyR. The signals induced by thimerosal were not zone-specific, while the observed calcium release signals induced by caffeine were predominantly restricted out of the ventricular zone. This zone-specific caffeine sensitivity is consistent with the main RyR localization immunodetected at E13. Our results indicate that there is a time lag of several days between the molecular detection of calcium release channels and their functional expression, around the time of neuronal differentiation. Altogether, they provide a molecular basis for analyzing the developmental modulation of calcium signals useful for neurogenesis progression.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Imidazoline binding sites are present in the striatal complex and in the extended amygdala and have been implicated in mood disorders. In this report we analysed the influence of these sites on the functional activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission, one of the major brain systems involved in the regulation of motivation and reward. We studied the effects of two imidazoline ligands, S23229 and S23230 (respectively S(+) and R(–) enantiomers of the S22687 or (5-[2-methyl phenoxy methyl] 1,3-oxazolin-2-yl) amine), on extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens using microdialysis in freely moving rats. We compared these imidazoline ligands to cocaine, a dopamine uptake blocker known to increase extracellular dopamine concentrations. S23229 dose-dependently increased extracellular dopamine and locomotor activity. S23230 dose-dependently increased extracellular dopamine and produced a near-significant dose–effect on locomotor activity. S23229 had a stronger efficacy than S23230 and increased dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens at an extent similar to the one of cocaine. These results suggest that central imidazoline binding sites could contribute to the functional regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The dopaminergic projection to the shell of the nucleus accumbens is the most reactive to stress, reward and drugs of abuse and this subregion of the nucleus accumbens is also considered a target of therapeutic effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs (APD). In this report we show, by means of in vivo microdialysis and Fos immunohistochemistry, that the hyper-responsiveness which characterizes the dopaminergic transmission to the shell is dependent on glucocorticoid hormones. In Sprague-Dawley rats, after suppression of endogenous glucocorticoids by adrenalectomy, extracellular dopamine levels selectively decreased in the shell, whilst they remained unchanged in the core. This effect was observed in basal conditions, after a mild stress (vehicle injection), as well as after subcutaneous administration of morphine (2 mg/kg, s.c.) or intraperitoneal injection of cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). The decrease in dopamine observed in the shell had a postsynaptic impact, as shown by less induction of Fos-like proteins selectively in the shell in response to cocaine. However, the induction of Fos-like proteins by the full D1 agonist SKF82958 (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) remained unchanged after adrenalectomy, suggesting that the changes in Fos expression after cocaine injection were likely to depend on changes in extracellular dopamine levels rather than on changes in postsynaptic sensitivity to dopamine. The effects of adrenalectomy were glucocorticoid-specific given that they were prevented by corticosterone treatment. This anatomical specificity in the control of neuronal activity by a hormonal input highlights the role of steroid hormones in shaping the functional activity of the brain.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Azodicarbonamide was recently identified as a new anti-HIV agent that targets the zinc finger domains of the HIV-1 NCp7 nucleocapsid protein. Here, we demonstrate that azodicarbonamide inhibits in a dose-dependent manner the responses of purified human CD4+ T lymphocytes stimulated either by ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The heat shock transcription factor Hsf1p and the stress-responsive transcription factors Msn2p and Msn4p are activated by heat shock in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their respective contributions to heat shock protein induction have been analysed by comparison of mutants and wild-type strains using [35S]-methionine labelling and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Among 52 proteins induced by a shift from 25°C to 38°C, half of them were found to be dependent upon Msn2p and/or Msn4p (including mostly antioxidants and enzymes involved in carbon metabolism), while the other half (including mostly chaperones and associated proteins) were dependent upon Hsf1p. The two sets of proteins overlapped only slightly. Three proteins were induced independently of these transcription factors, suggesting the involvement of other transcription factor(s). The Ras/cAMP/PKA signalling pathway cAMP had a negative effect on the induction of the Msn2p/Msn4p regulon, but did not affect the Hsf1p regulon. Thus, the two types of transcription factor are regulated differently and control two sets of functionally distinct proteins, suggesting two different physiological roles in the heat shock cellular response.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective  To compare blood loss with spontaneous delivery and manual removal of the placenta during caesarean section.Design  A randomised controlled trial.Setting  Four university hospitals between September 1999 and June 2002.Population  A total of 472 women delivering by caesarean section at term were randomised to spontaneous placental delivery (n= 235) or manual removal (n= 237).Methods  The allocation was made by opening the next available of a series of sealed opaque envelopes and derived from a computer-generated list of numbers.Main outcome measures  Significant blood loss, defined as either a drop in haemoglobin of greater than 2.5 g/dL, or the need for blood transfusion.Results  The mean interval between delivery of the newborn and the placenta was longer in the spontaneous delivery group (3.4 vs 1.9 minutes), but the mean duration of the operation was similar. Significant blood loss occurred in 30 women (13%) in the spontaneous delivery group and 49 women (21%) in the manual removal one (RR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41–0.94). Post-operative fever affected 6 and 5 cases, respectively, and antibiotics were used in 14 and 12 cases, respectively.Conclusions  Allowing spontaneous delivery of the placenta reduces significant blood loss without increasing operating time.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective To evaluate the prevalence of anal incontinence and anal sphincter defects after a first vaginal delivery and assess the effect of a second delivery.Design Prospective cohort study using postal questionnaires assessing incontinence to flatus and stools at three and thirty months postnatally and anal endosonography at three months following delivery.Setting Recruitment was from the antenatal clinic at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland.Population One hundred women with a vaginal delivery of their first child.Main outcome measures Prevalence of anal incontinence and anal sphincter defects.Results Anal incontinence was reported by 16/92 (17%) of women at three months after delivery and by 11/77 (14%) at 30 months. At that time, 5/54 (9%) with no further delivery reported incontinence, compared with 6/23 (26%) of those who had had another delivery (RR 2.8, 95% CI 1.0-8.3). Anal sphincter defects were diagnosed by endosonography in 46/87 (53%) women and were associated with reported incontinence at both three months (RR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.6) and 30 months (RR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.8) after delivery. The prevalence of anal incontinence at 30 months was highest (5/13, 39%) among those in whom a sphincter defect was diagnosed by endosonography after their first delivery and with a second delivery.Conclusion Anal incontinence after childbirth is associated with defects of the anal sphincter diagnosed by endosonography. Subsequent deliveries increase the risk of incontinence, particularly among women with a sphincter defect diagnosed after the first delivery.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...