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  • Blackwell Science Ltd  (2)
  • The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Polymorphisms at the glutathione S-transferase (GST) P1 locus were associated with asthma-related phenotypes and bronchial hyper-responsiveness.Objective This study investigated whether GSTP1 genotypes and outdoor air pollution were interactive risk factors on childhood asthma.Methods Four hundred and thirty-six subjects were recruited for oral mucosa samplings from 2853 fourth- to ninth-grade schoolchildren from three districts with different air pollution levels in southern Taiwan. PCR-based assays were performed by oral mucosa DNA to determine GSTP1 genotypes. We also conducted a nested case–control study comprising 61 asthmatic children and 95 controls confirmed by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire results and methacholine challenge test. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounding factors.Results All participants were homozygous at the Ala-114 locus. Although only a marginally significant association existed between the frequency of homozygosity at the Ile-105 locus and asthma when air pollution was not considered, we found a significant gene–environmental interaction between GSTP1–105 alleles and air pollution after adjusting for confounders (P=0.035). Specifically, we found that compared with participants carrying any Val-105 allele in low air pollution, those who are Ile-105 homozygotes in high air pollution district had a significantly increased risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=5.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.64–21.25). Compared with participants carrying any Val-105 allele, in high air pollution district, children with Ile-105 homozygotes had a significantly increased risk of asthma (AOR=3.79, 95% CI=1.01–17.08), but those who carried two Ile-105 alleles in low or moderate air pollution districts did not show similar tendencies. The risk of asthma also revealed a clear dose–response relationship with outdoor air pollution in children with Ile-105 homozygotes.Conclusion Our result suggests a gene–environmental interaction between GSTP1–105 genotypes and outdoor air pollution on childhood asthma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by airway remodelling due, at least in part, to an excess of extracellular matrix deposition in the airway wall. The ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) may be a marker of the balance between airway tissue destruction and repair.Objective We determined whether an imbalance of the MMP-9 : TIMP-1 molar ratio is present before and/or after challenge with TDI.Methods We used a murine model of TDI-induced asthma to evaluate the MMP-9 and TIMP-1 balance in the lung.Results The expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs and proteins in the lungs increased at 7 h after TDI inhalation and continued for up to 72 h. Immunohistochemical and immunocytological analyses in the lungs of TDI-exposed mice revealed increases of immunoreactive MMP-9 and TIMP-1. There were significant correlations between the levels of MMP-9 or TIMP-1 and the number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, or eosinophils. The molar ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1 significantly decreased at 7 h after TDI inhalation and continued up to 72 h.Conclusion These data suggest that TDI-induced asthma may be associated with an imbalance between MMP-9 and TIMP-1, which could be useful as a marker of airway inflammation and airway remodelling in this disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Purpose: MPT0L145 has been developed as a FGFR inhibitor exhibiting significant anti-bladder cancer activity in vitro and in vivo via promoting autophagy-dependent cell death. Here, we aim to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Experimental Design: Autophagy flux, morphology, and intracellular organelles were evaluated by Western blotting, transmission electron microscope, and fluorescence microscope. Molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance assay were performed to identify drug–protein interaction. Lentiviral delivery of cDNA or shRNA and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing was used to modulate gene expression. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was measured by a Seahorse XFe24 extracellular flux analyzer, and ROS level was measured by flow cytometry. Results: MPT0L145 persistently increased incomplete autophagy and phase-lucent vacuoles at the perinuclear region, which were identified as enlarged and alkalinized late-endosomes. Screening of a panel of lipid kinases revealed that MPT0L145 strongly inhibits PIK3C3 with a K d value of 0.53 nmol/L. Ectopic expression of PIK3C3 reversed MPT0L145-increased cell death and incomplete autophagy. Four residues (Y670, F684, I760, D761) at the ATP-binding site of PIK3C3 are important for the binding of MPT0L145. In addition, MPT0L145 promotes mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and DNA damage, which may in part, contribute to cell death. ATG5-knockout rescued MPT0L145-induced cell death, suggesting simultaneous induction of autophagy is crucial to its anticancer activity. Finally, our data demonstrated that MPT0L145 is able to overcome cisplatin resistance in bladder cancer cells. Conclusions: MPT0L145 is a first-in-class PIK3C3/FGFR inhibitor, providing an innovative strategy to design new compounds that increase autophagy, but simultaneously perturb its process to promote bladder cancer cell death. Clin Cancer Res; 24(5); 1176–89. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: Background: Despite age and sex differences in fecal hemoglobin (f-Hb) concentrations, most fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening programs use population-average cut-points for test positivity. The impact of age/sex-specific threshold on FIT accuracy and colonoscopy demand for colorectal cancer screening are unknown. Methods: Using data from 723,113 participants enrolled in a Taiwanese population-based colorectal cancer screening with single FIT between 2004 and 2009, sensitivity and specificity were estimated for various f-Hb thresholds for test positivity. This included estimates based on a "universal" threshold, receiver-operating-characteristic curve–derived threshold, targeted sensitivity, targeted false-positive rate, and a colonoscopy-capacity-adjusted method integrating colonoscopy workload with and without age/sex adjustments. Results: Optimal age/sex-specific thresholds were found to be equal to or lower than the universal 20 μg Hb/g threshold. For older males, a higher threshold (24 μg Hb/g) was identified using a 5% false-positive rate. Importantly, a nonlinear relationship was observed between sensitivity and colonoscopy workload with workload rising disproportionately to sensitivity at 16 μg Hb/g. At this "colonoscopy-capacity-adjusted" threshold, the test positivity (colonoscopy workload) was 4.67% and sensitivity was 79.5%, compared with a lower 4.0% workload and a lower 78.7% sensitivity using 20 μg Hb/g. When constrained on capacity, age/sex-adjusted estimates were generally lower. However, optimizing age/-sex-adjusted thresholds increased colonoscopy demand across models by 17% or greater compared with a universal threshold. Conclusions: Age/sex-specific thresholds improve FIT accuracy with modest increases in colonoscopy demand. Impact: Colonoscopy-capacity-adjusted and age/sex-specific f-Hb thresholds may be useful in optimizing individual screening programs based on detection accuracy, population characteristics, and clinical capacity. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(6); 704–9. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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