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  • 1
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Liquid chromatography ; HPLC ; Electrochemical detection ; Fluorescence detection ; UV detection ; Cysteine derivatives ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Electrochemical (ECD), fluorescence (FLD), and UV spectrophotometric (UVD) detection were used to monitor various S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteines and their corresponding sulfoxide isomers following pre-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde-tert-butylthiol and separation by reversed-phase HPLC. Recording of hydrodynamic voltammograms, FLD stop-flow scanning, and on-line captured UV spectra were methods used for establishing optimal detector settings which were defined as a compromise between favorable selectivity and high sensitivity. Optimal detector settings were found at: (A) 750 mV vs. Ag/AgCl for ECD; (B) excitation at 230 nm and emission at 420 nm for FLD; and (C) 337 nm for UVD. Various aspects of detector practicability such as selectivity, baseline disturbances due to excessive reagent, scanning possibilities, as well as detection limits were evaluated and compared. Minimal detectable amounts of the compounds were in the range of 130-160 fmol for ECD, and 2.5-3.5 pmol and 13-16 pmol for FLD and UVD. In addition, the possibilities and benefits of detector coupling were examined.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics ultimately govern the ability of soil to provide long-term C sequestration and the nutrients required for ecosystem productivity. Predicting belowground responses to elevated CO2 requires an integrated understanding of SOM transformations and the microbial activity that governs them. It remains unclear how the microorganisms upon which these transformations depend will function in an elevated CO2 world. This study examines SOM transformations and microbial metabolism in soils from the Duke Free Air Carbon Enrichment site in North Carolina, USA. We assessed microbial respiration and net nitrogen (N) mineralization in soils with and without elevated CO2 exposure during a 100-day incubation. We also traced the depleted C isotopic signature of the supplemental CO2 into SOM and the soils' phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), which serve as biomarkers for living cells. Cumulative net N mineralization in elevated CO2 soils was 50% that in control soils after a 100-day incubation. Respiration was not altered with elevated CO2. C : N ratios of bulk SOM did not change with elevated CO2, but incubation data suggest that the C : N ratios of mineralized organic matter increased with elevated CO2. Values of SOM δ13C were depleted with elevated CO2 (−26.7±0.2 vs. −30.2±0.3‰), reflecting the depleted signature of the supplemental CO2. We compared δ13C of individual PLFA with the δ13C of SOM to discern incorporation of the depleted C isotopic signature into soil microbial groups in elevated CO2 plots. PLFA i15:0, a15:0, and 10Met18:0 reflected significant incorporation of recently produced photosynthate, suggesting that the bacterial groups defined by these biomarkers are active metabolizers in elevated CO2 soils. At least one of these groups (actinomycetes, 10Met18:0) specializes in metabolizing less labile substrates. Because control plots did not receive an equivalent 13C tracer, we cannot determine from these data whether this group of organisms was stimulated by elevated CO2 compared with these organisms in control soils. Stimulation of this group, if it occurred in the elevated CO2 plot, would be consistent with a decline in the availability of mineralizable organic matter with elevated CO2, which incubation data suggest may be the case in these soils.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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