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  • Articles  (2)
  • Articles: DFG German National Licenses  (2)
  • Blackwell Science Ltd  (2)
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  • Articles: DFG German National Licenses  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. In order to identify genes involved in its pathogenicity, we performed insertional mutagenesis. Mutant N40 had lost its pathogenicity completely, when tested in bioassays with tomato seedlings. Molecular characterization of mutant N40 revealed that the plasmid insertion had occurred in a gene that codes for a 60.2 kDa protein containing an F-box motif. The gene was therefore designated as FRP1 (F-box protein required for pathogenicity). Targeted FRP1 disruptants had lost their pathogenicity completely, and became fully virulent again upon re-introduction of the FRP1 gene. This confirmed that the FRP1 gene is required for pathogenesis. In a yeast two-hybrid assay Frp1 interacts with Skp1, suggesting involvement of an SCF ubiquitin ligase complex in pathogenicity. FRP1 is constitutively expressed during infection and under different culture conditions. Although growth, spore formation and germination on artificial media were not impaired, confocal laser scanning microscopy of a GFP-marked mutant N40 and a GFP-marked targeted FRP1 disruptant revealed that they were unable to colonize the roots.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Most odours are complex mixtures. However, the capacities of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to process complex odour stimuli have never been explored in air-breathing vertebrates. To face this issue, the present study compares the electrical responses of single OSNs to two odour molecules, delivered singly and mixed together, in rats in vivo. This work is the first aimed at demonstrating that single OSNs simultaneously integrate several chemical signals and which, furthermore, attempts to describe such processes for the whole concentration range over which single OSNs can work. The results stress that complex interactions occur between components in odour mixtures and that OSN responses to such mixtures are not simply predictable from the responses to their components. Three types of interactions are described. They are termed suppression, hypoadditivity and synergy, in accord with psychophysical terminology. This allows us to draw links between peripheral odour reception and central odour coding. Indeed, events occurring in single OSNs may account for the dominating or even the masking effects of odour molecules in complex mixtures, i.e. for the prevailing action of a minor component in the final qualitative perception of a mixture. We conclude that our observations with binary mixtures anticipate the complexity of processes which may rise at the level of a single OSN in physiological conditions. Following this hypothesis, a natural odour would induce a multi-chemical integration at the level of single OSNs which may result in refining their individual odour-coding properties, leading them to play a crucial role in the final performance of the olfactory system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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