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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Plants grow in a constantly fluctuating environment, which has driven the evolution of a highly flexible metabolism and development necessary for their sessile lifestyle. In contrast to the situation in the natural world, the detailed dissection of the regulatory networks that govern plants’ responses to abiotic insults and their interaction with pathogens have been studied almost exclusively in controlled environments where a single challenge has been applied. However, the question arises of how such pathways operate when the plant is subjected to multiple stresses, especially where the expression of overlapping gene sets and common signalling molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), are implicated. This review will focus on the responsiveness of leaves to their light environment and how this might influence both basal and induced resistance to infection by biotrophic pathogens. While several signalling pathways operate in a complex network of defence responses, the functioning of the salicylic acid (SA) signalling pathway will receive specific consideration. This is because information is becoming available of its role in abiotic stress responses and it dependency on light. This article covers several topics, some of which formerly have received scant attention. These include the effects of infection on photosynthetic performance and carbohydrate metabolism, the parallels between the induction of acclimation to high light and immunity to pathogens, the role of light in the functioning of the SA signalling pathway and the light sensitivity of lesion formation and the use of lesion mimic mutants and transgenic plants. Finally, a model is proposed that attempts to extrapolate these controlled environment-based studies to the functioning of defences against pathogens in a field-grown crop.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Heat-shock proteins are induced in response to cellular stress. Although heat-shock proteins are known to function in repair and protective mechanisms, their relationship to critical neural processes, such as synaptic function, has received little attention. Here we investigate whether the major heat-shock protein Hsp70 localizes to the synapse following a physiologically relevant increase in temperature in the mammalian nervous system. Our results indicate that hyperthermia-induced Hsp70 is associated with pre- and postsynaptic elements, including the postsynaptic density. The positioning of Hsp70 at the synapse could facilitate the repair of stress-induced damage to synaptic proteins and also contribute to neuroprotective events at the synapse.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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