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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Mesenteric ischaemia results from decreased blood flow to the bowel, causing cellular injury from lack of oxygen and nutrients. Acute mesenteric ischaemia (AMI) is an uncommon disorder with high morbidity and mortality, but outcomes are improved with prompt recognition and aggressive treatment. Five subgroups of AMI have been identified, with superior mesenteric artery embolism (SMAE) the most common. Older age and cardiovascular disease are common risk factors for AMI, excepting acute mesenteric venous thrombosis (AMVT), which affects younger patients with hypercoaguable states. AMI is characterized by sudden onset of abdominal pain; a benign abdominal exam may be observed prior to bowel infarction. Conventional angiography and more recently, computed tomography angiography, are the cornerstones of diagnosis. Correction of predisposing conditions, volume resuscitation and antibiotic treatment are standard treatments for AMI, and surgery is mandated in the setting of peritoneal signs. Intra-arterial vasodilators are used routinely in the treatment of non-occlusive mesenteric ischaemia (NOMI) and also are advocated in the treatment of occlusive AMI to decrease associated vasospasm. Thrombolytics have been used on a limited basis to treat occlusive AMI. A variety of agents have been studied in animal models to treat reperfusion injury, which sometimes can be more harmful than ischaemic injury. Chronic mesenteric ischaemia (CMI) usually is caused by severe obstructive atherosclerotic disease of two or more splanchnic vessels, presents with post-prandial pain and weight loss, and is treated by either surgical revascularization or percutaneous angioplasty and stenting.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C: a morphological sign suggesting infection with HCV genotype 3 Aims: To identify factors associated with liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C. Methods and results: Occurrence and severity of liver steatosis in 254 chronic hepatitis C patients were compared with presence of alcohol abuse, body mass index (BMI) 〉26, history of intravenous drug addiction and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype. Steatosis was found in 109 (43%) patients. The occurrence of steatosis was significantly associated with ongoing alcohol abuse (P=0.03) or HCV genotype 3 (P= 0.003), but not with BMI 〉26. A moderate to severe steatosis was present in 60% of patients infected with HCV genotype 3, irrespective of the presence of alcohol abuse, BMI 〉26 or history of intravenous drug addiction. Using a multivariable stepwise logistic regression analysis, infection with genotype 3 had an odds ratio (OR) of 10 (95% confidence interval (CI)=4.56–22) for a liver steatosis, whereas the presence of a cirrhosis at histology had an OR=0.256 (95% CI=0.07–0.92). Conclusions: A moderate to severe degree of steatosis of the liver is a morphological sign suggestive of infection with HCV genotype 3, independent of other risk factors of a fatty liver, but it may disappear at late stages of the disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The only available vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, is at present being used as a reference for the efficacy of novel vaccines. Herein, we demonstrate that viable BCG can be detected at late time points after vaccination in C57BL/6J mice. If BCG is cleared by antibiotic treatment, the number of mycobacteria-reactive effector cells in the spleen gradually reverts to low levels and consequently immunity in this organ wanes, while resistance in the lung remains stable. The implications for comparing BCG vaccination with experimental vaccines including non-replicating vaccines are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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