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  • Blackwell Science Ltd  (4)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is implicated in the control of a number of hormonal axes including the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Previous studies have shown that there is evidence for both a stimulatory and an inhibitory action on the HPA axis; therefore, we attempted to further characterize the effects of MCH on this axis. Intracerebroventricular injection of MCH increased circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) at 10 min post injection. Injection of MCH directly into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was found to increase both circulating ACTH and corticosterone 10 min after injection. Additionally, MCH was found to increase corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) release from hypothalamic explants, and this effect was abolished by the specific SLC-1 antagonist SB-568849. Neuropeptide EI, a peptide from the same precursor as MCH was also found to increase CRF release from explants. These results suggest that MCH has a stimulatory role in the HPA axis via SLC-1, and that MCH exerts its effects predominantly through the PVN CRF neuronal populations
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Orexin immunoreactive fibres are abundant in the hypothalamus suggesting a neuroendocrine regulatory role. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of orexin A suppressed plasma prolactin in male rats by 71% at 20 min post-injection and 83% at 90 min post-injection (P 〈 0.005 vs saline at both time points). To investigate whether this effect was through the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) system, a supra-maximal dose of domperidone, a dopamine receptor antagonist, was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) prior to ICV injection of orexin A. ICV orexin A significantly suppressed domperidone (9 mg/kg)-stimulated plasma prolactin levels, by up to 40% (i.p. domperidone + ICV orexin A 3 nmol 34.5 ± 7.4 ng/ml and i.p. domperidone + ICV orexin A 20 nmol 43.5 ± 4.3 ng/ml, both P 〈 0.005 vs i.p. domperidone + ICV saline 57.9 ± 2.7 ng/ml). Orexin A, 100 nM, significantly stimulated release of neurotensin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin, corticotropin releasing factor and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, but had no effect on release of dopamine, thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), vasopressin or melanin-concentrating hormone from hypothalamic explants in vitro. Orexin A did not alter basal or TRH stimulated prolactin release in dispersed pituitary cells harvested from male rats. The data suggest that ICV administration of orexin A suppresses plasma prolactin in part through a pathway independent of the dopaminergic system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Kisspeptin is the peptide product of the KiSS-1 gene and the endogenous agonist for the GPR54 receptor. Recent evidence suggests the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is a key regulator of the reproductive system. We examined the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and peripheral administration of the active kisspeptin fragment, kisspeptin-10, on circulating gonadotrophins and total testosterone levels in adult male rats. The effect of kisspeptin-10 in vitro on the release of hypothalamic peptides from hypothalamic explants and gonadotrophins from anterior pituitary fragments was also determined. The i.c.v. administration of kisspeptin-10 dose-dependently increased plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and increased plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and total testosterone at 60 min postinjection. In a separate study investigating the time course of this response, i.c.v. administered kisspeptin-10 (3 nmol) significantly increased plasma LH at 10, 20 and 60 min, FSH at 60 min and total testosterone at 20 and 60 min postinjection. Kisspeptin-10 stimulated the release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) from in vitro hypothalamic explants. Peripheral administration of kisspeptin-10 increased plasma LH, FSH and total testosterone. However, doses of 100–1000 nM kisspeptin-10 did not influence LH or FSH release from pituitary fragments in vitro. Kisspeptin therefore potently stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. These effects are likely to be mediated via the hypothalamic LHRH system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2826
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a member of the neuropoietic family of cytokines. CNTF exerts its actions through activation of a receptor complex, which shows similarity of sequence, second messenger systems and distribution to the leptin receptor. Leptin has been demonstrated to exert profound effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis. This study examines the in vitro effects of CNTF on hypothalamic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone release (LHRH) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) release compared to those of leptin in the female. We report that CNTF stimulates LHRH release from medial basal hypothalamic explants harvested from proestrous female rats and this effect is of similar magnitude to that seen with leptin. In contrast, CNTF suppresses LHRH-stimulated LH release from dispersed anterior pituitary cells harvested from proestrous female rats but has no effect on basal LH release. Leptin stimulates basal LH release but has no effect on LHRH-stimulated LH release. The suppressive effect of CNTF on LHRH-stimulated LH release has been confirmed in perifused anterior hemipituitaries. These results suggest a differential effect of CNTF on the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis and a possible role in the modulation of pituitary gonadal function.
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