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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Arrestins and G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are key players in homologous desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors. Two non-visual arrestins, arrestin2 and 3, and five GRKs (GRK2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) are involved in desensitization of many receptors. Here, we demonstrate a steady increase in arrestin2 expression during prenatal development. The density of arrestin2 mRNA is higher in differentiated areas as compared with proliferative zones, whereas arrestin3 mRNA shows the opposite distribution. At embryonic day 14, concentrations of arrestin proteins are similar (32–34 nm). Later in development, arrestin2 expression rises, leading to a fourfold excess of arrestin2 over arrestin3 at birth (48 vs. 11 ng/mg protein or 102 vs. 25 nm). Among GRKs, only GRK5 increased with embryonic age from 124 nm at E14 to 359 nm at birth. Similarly, in vitro differentiation of cultured precursor cells, neurospheres, leads to a significant up-regulation of arrestin2 resulting in 〉 20-fold excess of arrestin2 (160 vs. 7 nm). GRK5 is the only subtype increased with neurosphere differentiation, although the change is only about twofold. The data demonstrate selective increases in the expression of arrestin2 associated with neural development and suggest specific yet unappreciated roles for arrestin2 in neural differentiation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The extent of nigrostriatal denervation is presumed to play a role in the genesis of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Yet some parkinsonian patients who have been treated over a long period do not develop dyskinesia, raising the possibility that the pattern of denervation is as important as the extent of lesioning as a risk factor. Here we study the extent and pattern of nigrostriatal denervation in a homogeneous population of parkinsonian macaque monkeys chronically treated with levodopa. Based on the characteristics of the lesioning, non-dyskinetic animals could not be differentiated from those with dyskinesia. Indeed, the number of tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding and TH immunostaining, as well as the overall TH striatal content measured by Western blotting were identical. Moreover, the patterns of lesioning assessed by a detailed analysis of the TH- and DAT-immunopositive striatal fibers were comparable in all functional quadrants and at all rostro-caudal levels considered. These data indicate that neither the extent nor the pattern of nigrostriatal lesioning are sufficient to explain the occurrence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: We obtain the wave velocities of clay-bearing sandstones as a function of clay content, porosity and frequency. Unlike previous theories, based simply on slowness and/or moduli averaging or two-phase models, we use a Biot-type three-phase theory that considers the existence of two solids (sand grains and clay particles) and a fluid. The theory, which is consistent with the critical porosity concept, uses three free parameters that determine the dependence of the dry-rock moduli of the sand and clay matrices as a function of porosity and clay content.Testing of the model with laboratory data shows good agreement between predictions and measurements. In addition to a rock physics model that can be useful for petrophysical interpretation of wave velocities obtained from well logs and surface seismic data, the model provides the differential equation for computing synthetic seismograms in inhomogeneous media, from the seismic to the ultrasonic frequency bands.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The binding of arrestin to rhodopsin is initiated by the interaction of arrestin with the phosphorylated rhodopsin C-terminus and/or the cytoplasmic loops, followed by conformational changes that expose an additional high-affinity site on arrestin. Here we use an arrestin mutant (R175E) that binds similarly to phosphorylated and unphosphorylated, wild-type rhodopsin to identify rhodopsin elements other than C-terminus important for arrestin interaction. R175E-arrestin demonstrated greatly reduced binding to unphosphorylated cytoplasmic loop mutants L72A, N73A, P142A and M143A, suggesting that these residues are crucial for high-affinity binding. Interestingly, when these rhodopsin mutants are phosphorylated, R175E-arrestin binding is less severely affected. This effect of phosphorylation on R175E-arrestin binding highlights the co-operative nature of the multi-site interaction between arrestin and the cytoplasmic loops and C-terminus of rhodopsin. However, a combination of any two mutations disrupts the ability of phosphorylation to enhance binding of R175E-arrestin. N73A, P142A and M143A exhibited accelerated rates of dissociation from wild-type arrestin. Using sensitivity to calpain II as an assay, these cytoplasmic loop mutants also demonstrated reduced ability to induce conformational changes in arrestin that correlated with their reduced ability to bind arrestin. These results suggest that arrestin bound to rhodopsin is in a distinct conformation that is co-ordinately regulated by association with the cytoplasmic loops and the C-terminus of rhodopsin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Dopamine D1 receptor interactions with arrestins have been characterized using heterologously expressed D1 receptor and arrestins. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of the endogenous D1 receptor with endogenous arrestin2 and 3 in neostriatal neurons. Endogenous arrestin2 and 3 in striatal homogenates bound to the C-terminus of the D1 receptor in a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pulldown assay, with arrestin3 binding more strongly. The D1 C-terminus and, to a lesser extent, the third cytoplasmic loop also bound purified arrestin2 and 3. In neostriatal neurons, 2, 5, and 20 min agonist treatment increased the colocalization of the D1 receptor and arrestin3 immunoreactivity without altering the colocalization of the D1 receptor and arrestin2. Further, agonist treatment for 5 and 20 min caused translocation of arrestin3, but not arrestin2, to the membrane. The binding of arrestin3, but not arrestin2, to the D1 receptor was increased as assessed by coimmunoprecipitation after agonist treatment for 5 and 20 min. Agonist treatment of neurons induced D1 receptor internalization (35–45%) that was maximal within 2–5 min, a time-course similar to that of the increase in colocalization of the D1 receptor with arrestin3. These data indicate that the D1 receptor preferentially interacts with arrestin3 in neostriatal neurons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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