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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to compare the surface discoloration of polished and celluloid strip-finished composite surfaces in microhybrid type composites and to determine whether or not the discoloration of a celluloid strip-finished composite surface is reduced if oxygen inhibition on the surface can be prevented. The composite surfaces were celluloid-strip finished (group 1), polished (group 2), or celluloid-strip finished under nitrogen gas purging (group 3). Z100, Spectrum, and Aelitefil were used as the test materials. After each surface treatment, the samples were stored in 37 °C distilled water for 24 h and placed in a disclosing solution (0·2% Erythrosin, pH 7·0) for 7 days in the dark. A computer controlled spectrophotometer was used to determine the CIELAB co-ordinates (L*, a*, b*). For each composite, the degree of discoloration among the groups was compared with a one-way anova test. A Dunnett's t-test was then performed to compare the colour change in group 1 with that of group 2 or group 3. In all materials, there were no statistical differences in the surface discoloration between group 1 and group 2. In the Aelitefil and Spectrum test materials, the samples in group 3 showed a lower level of discoloration than the those in group 1. In Z100, there was no statistical difference. In microhybrid composites, there was no difference in surface discoloration between celluloid strip-finished and the polished surface. Nitrogen gas purging during the polymerization process on the celluloid strip-finished composite surface might be useful for reducing the discoloration celluloid strip-finished surface in microhybrid composites.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The aim of this study was to subjectively determine the distribution of anaesthesia by mapping areas of sensory loss following inferior alveolar nerve block. Fifty healthy dental students were the subjects of this study (men 32, women 18). They were asked to draw the anaesthetized area on a diagram of the face and tongue 20 min after inferior alveolar nerve block. They evaluated the degree of anaesthesia by touching their faces and moving their tongues. All of the 50 subjects reported anaesthesia in the facial area. Of these, 21 (42%) reported the cutaneous distribution of anaesthesia on mental nerve territory only. Seventeen subjects (34%) reported anaesthesia on mental and buccal nerve territory. Nine subjects (18%) reported anaesthesia on mental, buccal, and auriculotemporal nerve territory. Two subjects (4%) reported anaesthesia on mental and auriculotemporal nerve territory and one subject (2%) on mental, buccal and infra-orbital nerve territory. Forty-seven of the 50 subjects (94%) reported anaesthesia of the tongue with the various degree of anaesthesia according to the area. Of these, 17 subjects (34%) reported strong anaesthesia on the anterior area and weak anaesthesia on the middle part of the tongue. Nineteen subjects (38%) reported strong anaesthesia of the lateral area and weak anaesthesia on the medial area, and 11 subjects (22%) reported anaesthesia on only the lateral side of the tongue. Three subjects (6%) reported no anaesthesia of the tongue. The distribution of anaesthesia of the facial and glossal regions determined subjectively after inferior alveolar nerve block, varies significantly between individuals.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to make clear the age-hardening mechanism in a dental high carat gold alloy. For this purpose, age-hardening behaviour of a commercial dental high carat gold alloy, 65·5wt% Au–14·0wt% Ag–10·0wt% Cu–8·9wt% Pt, was investigated by means of hardness testing, X-ray diffraction study and scanning electron microscopy. Age-hardening was generated by the coherency strain resulting from the transformation of the α single phase to the Ag-rich α1 phase and the AuCu I type ordered phase. The coherency strain seemed to be associated with the nucleation of the AuCu ordered structure initially, and then was brought about with the simultaneous formation of the Ag-rich α1 phase and the AuCu I type ordered phase. Hardening was attributed mainly to the very fine coherent precipitates of a lamellar structure composed of the Ag-rich α1 phase and the AuCu I type ordered phase at grain boundaries, and softening, which occurred following prolonged ageing, was due to the coarsening of the fine lamellar structure by releasing the strain at the interfaces of the adjacent lamellae.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Studies suggest obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) frequently manifests in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and that there may be a causal relationship.Aim : To determine the relationship between OSAS and symptoms of GERD.Methods : Consecutive patients referred to the Sleep Disorders Center (SDC) 18 years and older with polysomnographically defined OSAS were evaluated prospectively for GERD using a validated symptoms questionnaire. The GERD and OSAS relationship was assessed by 1) determining frequency of GERD in patients with and without OSAS; 2) ascertaining the relationship between OSAS severity categories and presence of GERD; 3) examining GERD score in relation to those factors that might affect both GERD and OSAS, e.g. obesity.Results : One thousand and twenty-three SDC patients met entry citeria. Amongst participants, GERD was common (29% of women and 17% of males) and OSAS extremely common (58% of women and 80% of males). GERD score did not correlate with OSAS variables. The severity of OSAS did not influence the prevalence of GERD.Conclusion : In a large group of patients referred to a sleep disorders center, there was no relationship between OSAS and GERD symptoms. Also, there was no relationship between the severity of OSAS and the likelihood of GERD symptoms.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 148 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background and objective Persistent asthma symptoms are associated with airway inflammation and remodeling, which may be mediated through metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP). The aim of this study was to evaluate MMPs and TIMP involvement in toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma.Materials and method Induced sputum was collected in eight newly diagnosed TDI-induced asthma subjects (group I) before and 7 h after the TDI and placebo challenges and in 12 subjects with TDI-induced occupational asthma diagnosed 5 years previously with persistent asthma symptoms (group II). Sera was collected in group I at diagnosis, and in group II, they were collected at the time of the study. 12 nonasthmatic healthy subjects were enrolled as controls. MMP-9, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels in both sputum and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gelatinase activity in the sputum was confirmed by zymographic analysis.Results The serum TIMP-1 level was significantly higher in asthma patients than in healthy controls (P = 0.01), while MMP-9 level was significantly lower in asthmatic patients (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in MMP-2 level (P = 0.27). MMP-9 level in the sputum was significantly increased after the TDI challenges (P = 0.01). TIMP-1 level in sputum tended to increase after TDI challenges, but no statistical significance was noted (P = 0.09). MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels in the sputum were significantly higher in group II than in group I (P = 0.04, P = 0.02) with no significant difference in TIMP-1 level. Minimal amount of MMP-2 was found in sputum. Zymography demonstrated that MMP-9 level increased and active form of MMP-9 was generated after the TDI bronchoprovocation test.Conclusion TDI exposure leads to overproduction of MMP-9, which may induce airway inflammation and remodeling, and then contribute to persistent asthmatic symptoms in TDI-induced asthma.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Our previous study reported that more than 50% of toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma patients had persistent asthmatic symptoms even after complete avoidance. Although specific IgE (sIgE) has been detected in a portion of patients with TDI-asthma, a recent investigation suggests that the presence of serum specific IgG (sIgG), not sIgE, is more closely associated with positive bronchoprovocation test (BPT) results.Objective To evaluate the possible role of sIgE and sIgG in predicting long-term prognosis of TDI-asthma.Materials and methods Forty-one TDI-asthma patients whose diagnosis was confirmed by TDI-BPT, and 20 unexposed healthy controls were enrolled. Both sIgE and sIgG to TDI-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate were detected by ELISA. All patients with persistent asthmatic symptoms took anti-asthmatic medications during the follow-up period (mean: 67.5 months) and were instructed to avoid exposure to TDI. Airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine (AHM) was monitored every year during the study period. The patients were classified into three groups according to changing patterns of AHM and asthmatic symptoms as follows: group I, no improvement with persistent asthmatic symptoms (n = 12); group II, partial improvement with persistent asthmatic symptoms (n = 13); group III, in remission (n = 16).Results Favourable prognosis was associated with a mild degree of AHM at initial diagnosis (P 〈 0.05). Although there were no significant differences in the prevalence of sIgE antibody to TDI-HSA conjugate among the three groups (P 〉 0.05), prevalence of sIgG in group I tended to be higher than in group II (0.05 〈 P 〈 0.1). However, the levels of sIgG were significantly higher in group I than in group II (P = 0.05), whereas levels of sIgE were significantly higher in group II than in group I (P = 0.014). No significant differences were noted in exposure duration, sex, age, atopic status, and total IgE level among the three groups (P 〉 0.05).Conclusion This study confirmed that a favourable outcome is related to a mild degree of AHM and to low levels of sIgG to predict persistent asthmatic symptoms, it also suggested that the presence of high serum-specific IgE at initial diagnosis may represent a better prognosis.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Cytopathology 16 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2303
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Forest floor CO2 efflux (Fff) depends on vegetation type, climate, and soil physical properties. We assessed the effects of biological factors on Fff by comparing a maturing pine plantation (PP) and a nearby mature Oak-Hickory-type hardwood forest (HW). Fff was measured continuously with soil chambers connected to an IRGA during 2001–2002. At both sites, Fff depended on soil temperature at 5 cm (T5) when soil was moist (soil moisture, θ〉0.20 m3 m−3), and on both T5 and θ when soil was drier. A model (Fff (T5, θ)) explained 〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:13541013:GCB915:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉92% of the variation in the daily mean Fff at both sites. Higher radiation reaching the ground during the leafless period, and a thinner litter layer because of faster decomposition, probably caused higher soil temperature at HW compared with PP. The annual Fff was estimated at 1330 and 1464 g C m−2 yr−1 for a year with mild drought (2001) at PP and HW, respectively, and 1231 and 1557 g C m−2 yr−1 for a year with severe drought (2002). In the wetter year, higher soil temperature and moisture at HW compared with PP compensated for the negative effect on Fff of the response to these variables resulting in similar annual Fff at both stands. In the drier year, however, the response to soil temperature and moisture was more similar at the two stands causing the difference in the state variables to impel a higher Fff at HW. A simple mass balance indicated that in the wetter year, C in the litter–soil system was at steady state at HW, and was accruing at PP. However, HW was probably losing C from the mineral soil during the severe drought year of 2002, while PP was accumulating C at a lower rate because of a loss of C from the litter layer. Such contrasting behavior of two forest types in close proximity might frustrate attempts to estimate regional carbon (C) fluxes and net C exchange.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aims: Interstitial pneumonitis in children is very rare and most cases have been classified according to their counterparts in adults, although the term ‘chronic pneumonitis of infancy’ has recently been proposed for a particular pattern of interstitial lung disease in infants. We reviewed our paediatric cases of interstitial pneumonitis, first, to look at the spectrum of histological patterns found in this age group and, second, to determine whether the classification of such cases in childhood is both appropriate and worthwhile.〈section xml:id="abs1-1"〉〈title type="main"〉Methods and resultsTwenty-five of 38 open lung biopsies showed an overlapping spectrum of interstitial pneumonitis, including three cases that fulfilled the histological criteria for chronic pneumonitis of infancy. There were 11 cases of reactive pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (either lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis or follicular bronchiolitis), five of which were associated with abnormalities of the immune system. Four cases were classified as desquamative interstitial pneumonitis and the remaining seven cases were classified as non-specific interstitial pneumonitis. There were no cases with the histological features of usual interstitial pneumonitis. Most patients responded to steroids but tended to have a residual deficit in lung function. Mortality appeared to be associated with presentation at a young age.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉ConclusionClassification of interstitial pneumonitis according to their adult counterparts is appropriate for this younger age group and can provide valuable information for the clinician. The term ‘chronic pneumonitis of infancy’ refers to a specific histological pattern, but whether it represents a separate disease or a reflection of pulmonary immaturity remains to be proven.
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