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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-4632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction Hair fibers are comprised of non-nucleated keratinocytes and are biologically dead. Clinical damage to the hair shaft occurs with the application of hair dye. Whether this damage can be repaired and the time frame involved is of interest and may help to determine the optimal interval between repeat applications.Aims and methods Ultrastructural changes of hair shafts after application of permanent hair dye were observed sequentially in a 26-year-old woman. The dye contained p-phenylenediamine, m-aminophenol, resorcin and hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizer. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy was performed immediately before application of the hair dye and again at 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks and 8 weeks.Results The hair showed cuticular swelling with focal degeneration. In some places there was exposure of the hair cortex due to extensive cuticular detachment. There were many holes of various size in the endocuticle, small focal lacunae along the intercellular space and an ill-defined A-layer especially beneath the area of cuticular detachment. The exocuticle appeared normal. The findings were most dramatic in the 6 h and 1 day specimens and tended to improve gradually thereafter. The 8 week specimen showed near complete restoration of the hair cuticle and return to the precoloring state.Conclusion Hair returns to its precoloring state and this requires 8 weeks.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-4632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A 31-year-old South Korean woman was referred to the dermatology department from the oncology department for the evaluation of a subcutaneous nodular lesion on the back. Three years before, she noted a palpable, fingertip-sized, nontender mass on her right lower abdomen. The mass had increased in size slowly. One year ago, she visited a local clinic and physical examination revealed a 7 × 8 × 7 cm, slightly tender, deep-seated mass on the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. The mass on the ilial mesentery was resected by surgical exploration and tissue examination revealed leiomyosarcoma. She refused adjuvant chemotherapy.Approximately 3 months later, she re-visited the clinic with a tender, subcutaneous nodule on the back. Cutaneous examination revealed a solitary, 2 × 2 cm, well-defined, hard, movable, subcutaneous nodule on the upper back without skin color change (〈link href="#f3-1"〉Fig. 1). She complained of tenderness on touching the lesion. Histologic examination of a biopsy specimen showed irregularly arranged spindle cells scattered throughout the dermis. They were arranged in haphazardly oriented or interweaving fascicles. Most of the spindle cells possessed elongated nuclei with blunt ends and some cells had a polygonal outline with irregularly shaped nuclei (〈link href="#f3-2"〉Fig. 2). There were many mitoses: 3–4 per high-power (× 400) field. Immunohistochemically, smooth muscle actin and desmin were positive in most of the tumor cells (〈link href="#f3-3"〉Fig. 3). S-100 reactivity was not observed. A diagnosis of metastatic leiomyosarcoma was made. About 1 month later, computed tomography showed two, ill-defined, heterogeneous, low attenuation masses in the right lobe of the liver, suggesting liver metastasis. The patient was treated with chemotherapy for 2 months and remains in good condition.〈figure xml:id="f3-1"〉1〈mediaResource alt="image" href="urn:x-wiley:00119059:IJD1254-4:IJD_1254_f3-1"/〉2 × 2 cm, solitary, well-defined, hard, movable, subcutaneous nodule without any overlying skin change〈figure xml:id="f3-2"〉2〈mediaResource alt="image" href="urn:x-wiley:00119059:IJD1254-4:IJD_1254_f3-2a"/〉〈mediaResource alt="image" href="urn:x-wiley:00119059:IJD1254-4:IJD_1254_f3-2b"/〉(a) Characteristic findings of cutaneous leiomyosarcoma with markedly high cellularity and densely packed transverse and longitudinal fascicles of cells (hematoxylin and eosin, × 40). (b) High magnification of the neoplasm revealing spindle cells with blunt-ended nuclei, pleomorphism, and mitotic figures (hematoxylin and eosin, × 200)〈figure xml:id="f3-3"〉3〈mediaResource alt="image" href="urn:x-wiley:00119059:IJD1254-4:IJD_1254_f3-3"/〉Dense cytoplasmic reactivity for smooth muscle actin is apparent (smooth muscle actin, × 200)
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-4632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Traction alopecia associated with the nurse’s cap is a relatively common form of occupational hair loss. Methods We examined 199 healthy South Korean nurses to assess the clinical and pathologic characteristics of traction alopecia caused by prolonged traction exerted at the point of attachment of the nurse’s cap. Results Seven nurses (3.5% of 199) had hair loss at the pin site used to secure the nurse’s cap. The lesions were exclusively localized on the parieto-occipital scalp. Histopathologic findings revealed characteristic cicatricial changes which showed a marked decrease in the number of hair follicles without inflammation. Conclusions Nurse’s cap alopecia is not an uncommon occupational alopecia, and appears to be a distinct clinical entity which should be distinguished from other forms of patchy alopecia.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 3-Hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite, is known to have toxic effects in brain. However, the molecular mechanism of the toxicity has not been well identified. In this study, we investigated the involvement of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the 3-HK-induced neuronal cell damage. Our results showed that 3-HK induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and ERK phosphorylation occurred during cell death. Inhibition of ERK activation using PD98059 considerably increased cell death. Furthermore, cell death was preceded by mitochondrial malfunction including collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol. Interestingly, inhibition of ERK dramatically increased mitochondrial malfunction, and enhanced caspase activation, resulting in enhanced neuronal cell death. Thus, our results show that ERK plays a protective role by maintaining mitochondrial function and regulating caspase activity under conditions of cellular stress.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: One of the pathophysiological features of Alzheimer's disease is astrocytosis around senile plaques. Reactive astrocytes may produce proinflammatory mediators, nitric oxide, and subsequent reactive oxygen intermediates such as peroxynitrites. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of the C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein (CT-APP), which is another constituent of amyloid senile plaque and an abnormal product of APP metabolism, as an inducer of astrocytosis. We report that 100 nm recombinant C-terminal 105 amino acid fragment (CT105) of APP induced astrocytosis morphologically and immunologically. CT105 exposure resulted in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways as well as transcription factor NF-κB. Pretreatment with PD098059 and/or SB203580 decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. But inhibitors of NF-κB activation did not affect MAPKs activation whereas they abolished NO production and attenuated astrocytosis. Furthermore, conditioned media derived from CT105-treated astrocytes enhanced neurotoxicity and pretreatment with NO and peroxynitrite scavengers attenuated its toxicity. These suggest that CT-APP may participate in Alzheimer's pathogenesis through MAPKs- and NF-κB-dependent astrocytosis and iNOS induction.
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