Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Oxidants and free radicals are known to be a very important factor in skin aging, taking an active part in lipidic peroxidation, breakage of proteins and DNA, etc. The most well-known are reactive oxygen species (ROS), for example, superoxide radical anion, or more commonly called, superoxide (O〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:01425463:ICS279:ICS_279_mu1" location="equation/ICS_279_mu1.gif"/〉), hydroxyl radical (OH•) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Both free radicals and other oxidants can be generated by metabolic activity within the cell and by other environmental challenges,. In addition, other dangerous species are known such as reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). Some of the most important RNS are peroxynitrite (ONOO−), nitrogen dioxide radical (•NO2) and the nitronium ion (NO〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:01425463:ICS279:ICS_279_mu2" location="equation/ICS_279_mu2.gif"/〉). For RCS, some of the most important are 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), acrolein (ACR), malondialdehyde (MDA) or glyoxal (GXL). Both compounds (RNS and RCS) are thought to play an important role in many diseases and in skin aging, for example, collagen cross-linking, DNA damage, protein tyrosine nitration, etc. This work investigates two new specific chemicals: Lipochroman-6®– an anti-RNS which shows good results in inhibiting the nitration of tyrosine by peroxynitrite, and Aldenine®– a tripeptide anti-RCS which protects cells from reactive carbonyl compounds such as HNE or ACR; it also shows the ability to prevent glycation of proteins, specifically by superoxide dismutase (SOD).
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