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  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Nerve injury leads to the release of a number of cytokines which have been shown to play an important role in cellular activation after peripheral nerve injury. The members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) gene family are the main mediators in the signal transduction pathway of cytokines. After phosphorylation, STAT proteins are transported into the nucleus and exhibit transcriptional activity. Following axotomy in rat regenerating facial and hypoglossal neurons, a transient increase of mRNA for JAK2, JAK3, STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5 was detected using in situ hybridization and semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the investigated STAT molecules, only STAT3 protein was significantly increased. In addition, activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation on position Tyr705 and enhanced nuclear translocation was found within 3 h in neurons and after 1 day in astrocytes. Unexpectedly, STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation was obvious for more than 3 months. In contrast, none of these changes was found in response to axotomy of non-regenerating Clarke's nucleus neurons, although all the investigated models express c-Jun and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in response to axonal injury. Increased expression of Janus kinase (JAK) and STAT molecules after peripheral nerve transection suggests changes in the responsiveness of the neurons to signalling molecules. STAT3 as a transcription factor, which is expressed early and is activated persistently until the time of reinnervation, might be involved in the switch from the physiological gene expression to an ‘alternative program’ activated only after peripheral nerve injury.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: A highly resistive phonolitic body near Sainerholz / Westerwald in Germany has been investigated for geological mapping using vertical electrical soundings in a Schlumberger configuration. Because of its explicitly three-dimensional shape, conventional 1D and 2D interpretation techniques are not applicable. Therefore, a new 3D finite-difference forward modelling algorithm has been applied to acquire information about its subsurface structure and to explain the observed data. This investigation focuses on two exposed soundings: one located near the centre of the body and the other close to its rim. For the interpretation, data from electromagnetic measurements on the lateral extension of the body are additionally taken into account as well as geological a priori information. A possible 3D conductivity model is presented and evidence for its validity is discussed using model studies and sensitivity analyses. The latter are carried out using a newly developed 3D FD sensitivity modelling code with which the total subsurface response can be decomposed. This permits the determination of the resolution of model parameters, indicating the contribution of different parts of the model to the overall response. The results emphasize the feasibility of 3D forward modelling in practice.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Swiss nurses' knowledge related to health care reforms: an exploratory study Background. This study examines health care reforms' implementation processes from the perspective of nurses' knowledge regarding the reforms. The research has been carried out in the Swiss (Canton Vaud) context, where health care reforms have been initiated, on the National (Federal) level, in 1996. Objectives. Three research questions were formulated: (a) What is the level of nurses' knowledge regarding the basic principles of LAMal (Loi fédérale sur l'assurance maladie, Federal Health Insurance Law)? (b) What is the level of nurses' knowledge concerning the principles of health care reforms in Canton Vaud (NOPS, Nouvelles Orientations de la Politique Sanitaire)? and (c) Are there knowledge differences relating to employment setting (hospital, community, and education), nurses' roles (managerial vs. staff nurses) and level of education? Methods. The sample consisted of a total of 74 nurses. Of these, 20 were employed in the community, 30 in hospital settings and 24 worked in schools of nursing. The research tool utilized was 40-items nurses' knowledge questionnaire developed for the purpose of this study. Three knowledge subscales and a subscale of certainty were constructed. Results. Overall, data showed a moderate to high mean level of knowledge (around 70% correct responses) on all knowledge scales considered. Community setting, managerial position, and a nonacademic nursing degree were all positively related to higher levels of reforms' knowledge. On the contrary, employment in a hospital setting and having a university degree had both negative impacts on achieving a high score of knowledge. Levels of certainty were significantly higher for LAMal than NOPS and for correct rather than for wrong responses.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of advanced nursing 36 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Israeli nurses’ knowledge of health care reforms Objectives. This study examines health care reforms’ implementation processes from the perspective of nurses’ knowledge regarding the reforms. The research has been carried out in the Israeli context, where health care reforms were initiated in 1995. Three specific research questions were formulated: (a) What is the level of nurses’ knowledge regarding the recommendations of the Netanyahu committee? (b) What is the level of nurses’ knowledge concerning the basic principals of the National Insurance Law? and (c) Are there knowledge differences relating to employment setting (hospital, community, and educational settings), nurses’ roles (managerial vs. staff nurses), years of experience, and level and type of education? Method. The stratified nonproportional random sample consisted of a total of 468 nurses. Of these nurses, 206 were employed in community settings (136 in curative care, and 70 in preventive care), 137 were employed in hospital settings, and 125 worked in schools and departments of nursing. Research tools, developed for the purpose of this study, included the nurses’ knowledge questionnaire comprised of five subscales, and the knowledge relevancy questionnaire. Results. Overall, data demonstrated a low to moderate level of knowledge on all knowledge scales. Knowledge level on the criteria questions was particularly low. Contrary to the low level of knowledge, nurses regarded health care reforms’ knowledge as highly relevant to their work life. Curative setting, an extensive work experience, managerial position, and non-nursing academic degree were all positively related to higher levels of reforms’ knowledge. Conclusion. These findings should encourage both policy makers and managers in various health care organizations to develop programs for informing health care providers on central aspects of health care reforms considered most relevant to the practice setting.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of advanced nursing 30 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2648
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Evaluation of an innovative curriculum: nursing education in the next century The present research focused on an interim evaluation of a new nursing curriculum made by first- and second-year undergraduates. Study 1 examined the assessments made by 90 students of the new, actual programme of their studies, as well as an ideal one, on 21 bipolar criteria reflecting the developing changes in health care practices and higher educational processes in western society. The results of study 1 indicated that students perceived the actual programme as compatible with health care changes, but lacking in terms of the learning process. Study 2 investigated the same assessments among 105 registered nurses who evaluated the traditional nursing programme under which they were trained as well as an ideal one. The results of study 2 showed that registered nurses perceived past curricula as lower than the ideal on both health care and process of learning. The results of this interim evaluation imply that the new nursing curriculum follows health care trends, but a shift in the educational process is required.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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