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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In order to clarify the effectiveness of ultrasonication on vaccine delivery, juvenile sea bream, Pagrus major, were treated with eight different ultrasonic methods. A mixed vaccine against Vibrio alginolyticus and V. anguillarum was used to immunize the fish. The intensity and frequency of the ultrasound were 280 mW cm–2 and 35 kHz, respectively. The ultrasonic methods included continuous or pulsed ultrasound for 3 min, and continuous or pulsed ultrasound for 3 min before and/or after immersion for 3 min. Of all the eight ultrasonic methods tested, `pulsed ultrasound followed by immersion' and `immersion, pulsed ultrasound, and followed by immersion again' provided the best protection, which were comparable with protection of fish immunized by intraperitoneal injection. Moreover, the convenience of applying these two ultrasonic methods for immunization was comparable with the immersion method and was much better than intraperitoneal injection. If 2 × 108 CFU mL–1 of this mixed vaccine was used for vaccination repeatedly five times by ultrasonic methods, it could still produce good protection for the immunized sea bream. Therefore, the ultrasonic method is an effective and practical approach for fish vaccination on a large scale.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: It has been documented that sex hormone may play a role in the pathogenesis of murine lupus. To determine the effect of tamoxifen (TAM) on NZB/W F1 female mice, a total dose of 800 μg (22 mg/kg body weight) of TAM was administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks. The control mice were injected with peanut oil only. After treatment with TAM for 5 months, the mice were killed and immunological parameters were evaluated. The results suggest that NZB/W F1 mice treated with TAM had less severe proteinuria and increased survival rate compared to controls. Flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes revealed a significantly lower percentage of B cells and CD5+ B cells in the TAM-treated group. There was a significantly lower serum level of soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor I and II molecules in the TAM-treated mice. Immunohistological study showed that control mice had severe immune complex deposition in the kidney. In contrast, TAM-treated mice had much less pathological change. In summary, this study demonstrated that TAM treatment might be able to alleviate the symptoms of lupus nephritis, influence B-cell count, modulate the expression of cytokine receptors and thereby subsequently affect immune function. Further studies to determine the cellular mechanisms in lupus nephritis may increase our understanding of this complex disease and provide additional targets for therapeutic intervention.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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