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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) modulate neuronal function. Here, we tested the effect on metabolism of a range of Group I and II mGluR ligands in Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slices, applying 13C NMR spectroscopy and metabolomic analysis using multivariate statistics. The effects of Group I agonists (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) and (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG) depended upon concentration and were mostly stimulatory, increasing both net metabolic flux through the Krebs cycle and glutamate/glutamine cycle activity. Only the higher (50 µm) concentrations of CHPG had the opposite effect. The Group I antagonist (RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA), consistent with its neuroprotective role, caused significant decreases in metabolism. With principal components analysis of the metabolic profiles generated by these ligands, the effects could be separated by two principal components. Agonists at Group II mGluR [(2S,2′R,3′R)-2-(2′,3′-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG IV) and 2R,4R-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (APDC)] generally stimulated metabolism, including glutamate/glutamine cycling, although this varied with concentration. The antagonist (2S)-α-ethylglutamic acid (EGLU) stimulated astrocyte metabolism with minimal impact on glutamate/glutamine cycling. (RS)-1-Aminophosphoindan-1-carboxylic acid (APICA) decreased metabolism at 5 µm but had a stimulatory effect at 50 µm. All ligand effects were separated from control and from each other using two principal components. The ramifications of these findings are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-4632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), sometimes referred to as adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC), is a common malignant tumor of the salivary glands that can also develop from the esophagus, lacrimal passages, lung, upper respiratory tract, pancreas, prostate and thyroid. Rarely, MEC will present primarily in the skin.Case  We present a case of primary MEC of the lower eyelid treated successfully with Mohs micrographic surgery.Results  Mohs micrographic surgery was performed because of the highly aggressive and unpredictable nature of this tumor. The tumor was completely excised using Mohs with negative margins achieved in three stages. The patient has been disease free for 3 years since the surgery.Conclusion  We offer Mohs as an option for treating MEC.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae contains group II chaperonins, known as rosettasomes, which are two nine-membered rings composed of three different 60 kDa subunits (TF55 alpha, beta and gamma). We sequenced the gene for the gamma subunit and studied the temperature-dependent changes in alpha, beta and gamma expression, their association into rosettasomes and their phylogenetic relationships. Alpha and beta gene expression was increased by heat shock (30 min, 86°C) and decreased by cold shock (30 min, 60°C). Gamma expression was undetectable at heat shock temperatures and low at normal temperatures (75–79°C), but induced by cold shock. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that in vitro alpha and beta subunits form homo-oligomeric rosettasomes, and mixtures of alpha, beta and gamma form hetero-oligomeric rosettasomes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that beta homo-oligomeric rosettasomes and all hetero-oligomeric rosettasomes associate into filaments. In vivo rosettasomes were hetero-oligomeric with an average subunit ratio of 1α:1β:0.1γ in cultures grown at 75°C, a ratio of 1α:3β:1γ in cultures grown at 60°C and a ratio of 2α:3β:0γ after 86°C heat shock. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we determined denaturation temperatures (Tm) for alpha, beta and gamma subunits of 95.7°C, 96.7°C and 80.5°C, respectively, and observed that rosettasomes containing gamma were relatively less stable than those with alpha and/or beta only. We propose that, in vivo, the rosettasome structure is determined by the relative abundance of subunits and not by a fixed geometry. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses indicate that archaeal chaperonin subunits underwent multiple duplication events within species (paralogy). The independent evolution of these paralogues raises the possibility that chaperonins have functionally diversified between species.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Regional and global environmental modeling depend on soil data for input layers or parameterization. However, randomly located observations, such as provided by agricultural databases, are not always representative of trends identified in field studies conducted under carefully controlled conditions. Many researchers lament the paucity of soil profile data in Amazônia, and suggest that given more data, regional studies would more closely approximate field research results. We assess the ability of a well-populated regional database collected in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon to reproduce expected biogeochemical trends associated with forest clearing and pasture establishment, and explore the ramifications of relying on independently collected soil data for regional modeling. The Soteron database includes analyses of approximately 3000 soil cores collected for zoning purposes in the state of Rondônia. Pasture ages were determined from a time series of Landsat TM images classified using spectral mixture analysis.Although regional averages showed some of the temporal trends expected based on field study results (e.g. increase in pH following forest clearing), the trends were not statistically significant. Stratification by precipitation and other variables showed pasture age to be important but difficult to separate from other potential controls on soil conditions, mainly because of the reduced number of observations in each stratum. Using multiple regression, which permitted the inclusion of all potential explanatory factors and interactions, pasture age was shown to be a statistically significant predictor of soil conditions. However, the expected temporal sequence of changes documented by field chronosequence studies could not be reproduced. Properties dominated by large-scale environmental gradients – pH, sum of base cations, aluminum saturation, and exchangeable calcium – were moderately well modeled, while those more strongly linked to dynamic spatially heterogeneous processes such as biological cycling and land management, particularly organic carbon and nitrogen, could not be modeled.Management-induced soil changes occur at too fine a scale to be captured by most maps, and the relative changes are small compared with spatial heterogeneity caused by controls on soil development over large regions. Therefore, regardless of whether chronosequence-derived models of biogeochemical response to land-cover change are correct, the results of these models will not lead to spatially explicit maps that can be validated by regional reconnaissance, nor will they facilitate realistic predictions of the regional biogeochemical consequences of land-cover change. The change from local to regional scale entails a change in the relative importance of processes controlling soil property behavior.
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