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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The modulatory effects of Zn2+ and other divalent cations on the ATP-induced responses of preganglionic neurons acutely dissociated from the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) were examined using a nystatin-perforated patch technique under voltage-clamp. DMV neurons were identified by back-filling of DiI placed on the vagal bundle at the neck. Zn2+ exerts a concentration-dependent effect on P2X receptor-mediated current (IATP): a potentiation by low concentrations of Zn2+ (≤ 50 µm) and an inhibition by high concentrations (〉 50 µm). Inhibition of the ATP response was associated with a prolongation of the rising phase of IATP. Cu2+ mimicked Zn2+ regarding the biphasic modulation of IATP. On the other hand, Ni2+ potentiated, but failed to inhibit, the ATP response even at a concentration of 3 mm. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed the similarity of P2X2 mRNA expression between the DMV and superior cervical ganglion (SCG) but not in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hypoglossal nucleus (XII). The results from the electrophysiological and molecular approaches suggest that functional P2X receptors expressed in DMV neurons are characterized mainly by the P2X2 and P2X2/6 subtype. DMV neurons possess similar P2X receptor characteristics to SCG neurons.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Prosaposin, a 517-amino-acid glycoprotein, not only acts as the precursor of saposin A, B, C, and D but also possesses neurotrophic activity to rescue hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemic damage in vivo and to promote neurite extension of neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Recently, the trophic activity of prosaposin on human neuroblastoma cells has been shown to reside in the NH2-terminal hydrophilic sequence (LIDNNRTEEILY) of the human saposin C. Here we show that prosaposin, saposin C, and a peptide comprising the 18-amino-acid sequence (18-mer peptide; LSELIINNATEELLIKGL) located in the NH2-terminal hydrophilic sequence of the rat saposin C-domain promoted survival and neurite outgrowth of cultured rat hippocampal neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, infusion for 7 days of the 18-mer peptide into the lateral ventricle of gerbils, starting either 2 h before or immediately after 3 min of forebrain ischemia, protected ischemia-induced learning disability and hippocampal CA1 neuronal loss. Thus, we ascribe the in vitro and in vivo trophic actions of prosaposin on hippocampal neurons to the linear 18-mer sequence and raise the possibility that this peptide can be used as an agent for the treatment of forebrain ischemic damage.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The endocannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine) and other bioactive long-chain N-acylethanolamines are thought to be formed from their corresponding N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines by a specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) in the brain as well as other tissues. However, regional distribution of NAPE-PLD in the brain has not been examined. In the present study, we investigated the expression levels of NAPE-PLD in nine different regions of rat brain by enzyme assay, western blotting and real-time PCR. The NAPE-PLD activity was detected in all the tested brain regions with the highest activity in thalamus. Similar distribution patterns of NAPE-PLD were observed at protein and mRNA levels. We also found a remarkable increase in the expression levels of protein and mRNA of the brain NAPE-PLD with development, which was in good agreement with the increase in the activity. The age-dependent increase was also seen with several brain regions and other NAPE-PLD-enriched organs (heart and testis). p-Chloromercuribenzoic acid and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, which inhibited recombinant NAPE-PLD dose-dependently, strongly inhibited the enzyme of all the brain regions. These results demonstrated wide distribution of NAPE-PLD in various brain regions and its age-dependent expression, suggesting the central role of this enzyme in the formation of anandamide and other N-acylethanolamines in the brain.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is an autosomal recessively inherited lysosomal storage disease involving a mutation in the CLN3 gene. The sequence of CLN3 was determined in 1995; however, the localization of the CLN3 gene product (Cln3p) was not confirmed. In this study, we investigated endogenous Cln3p using two peptide antibodies raised against two distinct epitopes of murine Cln3p. Identification of the liver 60 kDa protein as Cln3p was ascertained by amino acid sequence analysis using tandem mass spectrometry. Liver Cln3p was predominantly localized in the lysosomal membranes, not in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi apparatus. As the tissue concentration of brain Cln3p was much lower than that of liver Cln3p, it could be detected only after purification from brain extract using anti-Cln3p IgG Sepharose. The apparent molecular masses of liver Cln3p and brain Cln3p were determined to be about 60 kDa and 55 kDa, respectively. Both brain and liver Cln3p were deglycosylated by PNGase F treatment to form polypeptides with almost the same molecular mass (45 kDa). However, they were not affected by Endo h treatment. In addition, it was also elucidated that the amino terminal region of Cln3p faces the cytosol.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of oral rehabilitation 27 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study investigated the influence of protrusive tooth contacts (tooth contacts during mandibular protrusion) on the tapping point distribution. Nine healthy subjects volunteered for this study and the protrusive tooth contact pattern, as well as the retrusive tooth contact pattern, was altered on four maxillary occlusal splints. The first splint was adjusted to make the sagittal incisal path of protrusion and retrusion equivalent to that of the natural dentition. The second and third splints had partial and complete elimination of the protrusive tooth contact, respectively. The fourth splint had complete elimination of both protrusive and retrusive tooth contacts. The subjects were asked to use each splint continuously for 1 week. The tapping point distribution was measured on the 7th day after insertion of each splint. The four experimental occlusal conditions were found to have a significant effect on the tapping point distribution. The complete elimination of the protrusive tooth contact caused an anterior tapping point location and an increase in the tapping point area. The former tendency was found to be independent of the presence of the retrusive tooth contact. In conclusion, it was suggested that the protrusive tooth contact plays a significant role in maintaining the consistency and stability of the tapping point.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To clarify the characteristics of renal haemodynamics and their correlation with renal pathology in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), renal function and renal biopsy findings from 101 SLE patients were analysed retrospectively. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were examined simultaneously. Filtration fraction (FF) was calculated from the values obtained for GFR and RPF (GFR/RPF). The GFR was low in one-third and within normal limits in two-thirds of class IV patients with lupus nephritis (LN). In contrast, high RPF was observed in half of class IV patients. As a result, over 70% of class IV patients possessed a very low FF (less than 15%). The sensitivity of very low FF for class IV LN was significantly higher than that of low GFR. In conclusion, low FF was frequently recognized, especially in patients with diffuse proliferative LN. Decreased FF was a highly sensitive indicator of diffuse proliferative LN. Thus, determination of renal haemodynamics, including FF, may be a useful clinical parameter for evaluating renal involvement in patients with SLE.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of light intensity on linear shrinkage of photo-activated composite resins during setting. The materials used were four commercially available photo-activated composite resins. Three light-irradiation instruments were selected and prepared so as to obtain four light intensities (200, 480, 800 and 1600 mW cm−2). The linear shrinkage during setting was examined 10 min after light irradiation using a trial balance plastometer, and the specimen thickness was 2·0 mm for all materials. The depth of cure was examined according to the test method described in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/FDIS 4049: 2000(E)). In measuring the linear shrinkage 60 s from the start of light irradiation for 10 s, there was a significant correlation (r = 0·89–0·94) between the amount of linear shrinkage and the light intensity: an increase in light intensity produced a greater linear shrinkage. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation (r = 0·92–1·0) between the linear shrinkage and the irradiation time: an increase in irradiation time resulted in a greater linear shrinkage. Values of the depth of cure ranged from 1·69 to 3·75 mm.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the study was to characterize the acoustics of vowel articulation in maxillectomy patients. Digital acoustic analysis of five vowels, /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ and /u/, was performed on 12 male maxillectomy patients and 12 normal male individuals. A simple set of acoustic descriptions called the first and second formant frequencies, F1 and F2, were employed and calculated based on linear predictive coding. The maxillectomy patients had a significantly lower F2 for all five vowels and a significantly higher F1 for only /i/ vowel. From the data plotted on an F1–F2 plane in each subject, we determined the F1 range and the F2 range, which are the differences between the minimum and the maximum frequencies among the five vowels. The maxillectomy patients had a significantly narrower F2 range than the normal controls. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the F1 range. These results suggest that the maxillectomy patients had difficulty in controlling F2 properly. In addition, the speech intelligibility (SI) test was performed to verify the results of this new frequency range method. A high correlation between the F2 range and the score of SI test was demonstrated, suggesting that the F2 range is effective in evaluating the speech ability of maxillectomy patients.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Prosaposin, a multifunctional protein, is the precursor of saposins, which activate sphingolipid hydrolases. In addition to acting as a precursor for saposins, prosaposin has been shown to rescue hippocampal CA1 neurons from lethal ischemic damage in vivo and to promote neurite extension of neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Here we show that prosaposin, when added to a collagen-filled nerve guide after sciatic nerve transection in guinea pigs, increased dramatically the number of regenerating nerve fibers within the guide. To identify the target neurons of prosaposin during peripheral nerve regeneration, we determined the degree of atrophy and chromatolysis of neurons in the spinal anterior horn and dorsal root ganglia on the prosaposin-treated and untreated side. The effect of prosaposin on large spinal neurons and small neurons of the dorsal root ganglion was more conspicuous. Subsequent immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the atrophy of cholinergic large neurons in the anterior horn is prevented to significant extent by prosaposin treatment. These findings suggest that prosaposin promotes peripheral nerve regeneration by acting on α-motor neurons in the anterior horn and on small sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. The present study raises the possibility of using prosaposin as a tool for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.
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