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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 67 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We have previously shown that a recombinant carboxyl-terminal 105-amino-acid fragment (CT105) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) induced strong non-selective inward currents in Xenopus oocytes. Here we investigated the toxic effect of CT105 peptide on the cultured mammalian cells. The CT105 peptide induced a significant lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from cultured rat cortical neurons and PC12 cells in a concentration (from 10 µM)- and time (from 48 h)-dependent manner. The toxic effect of CT105 was more potent than that of any fragments of amyloid β protein (Aβ). However, CT105 peptide did not affect the viability of U251 human glioblastoma cells. In contrast to CT105, Aβ increased LDH release only slightly even at 50 µM but significantly inhibited 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction at submicromolar concentrations. Among the various neuroprotective drugs tested, only cholesterol, which alters membrane fluidity, could attenuate the cytotoxicity of CT105 significantly. The CT105 peptide formed multiple self-aggregates on solubilization. Pretreatment with a sublethal concentration of CT105 did not significantly alter the susceptibility of cells to hydrogen peroxide and glutamate. Endogenous CT peptides were found not only in the cell lysates but also in the conditioned medium of PC12 cells. These results imply that CT peptide can directly attack the cell membrane probably by making pores or nonselective ion channels, whereas Aβ impairs the intracellular metabolic pathway first. Thus, it is thought that both CT and Aβ, which are formed during the processing of APP, may participate in the neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease by different mechanisms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The rat phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) gene was isolated from a genomic library by cross-hybridization with a bovine PNMT cDNA probe. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of a genomic clone showed that this gene contained three exons and spanned about 2.8 kb in length. There were the acute-phase response element, TATA, SP1, and GRE sequences. The physicochemical properties of rat adrenal PNMT were different from those of the brainstem PNMT. However, northern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the rat PNMT gene may not express the multiple forms of mRNA. These results suggest that the rat PNMT gene might produce a single enzyme protein, whose activity may be differentially modulated by tissue-specific environment in the central and peripheral systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Rat spinal cord contusion injury models the histopathology associated with much clinical spinal cord injury (SCI). Studies on altered gene expression after SCI in these models may identify therapeutic targets for reducing secondary injury after the initial trauma and/or enhancing recovery processes. However, complex spatial and temporal alterations after injury could complicate interpretation of changes in gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we selected six genes and studied their temporal and spatial patterns of expression at 1 h, 1, 3 and 7 days after a standardized spinal cord contusion produced by a weight drop device (10 g × 25 mm at T8). Real-time RT–PCR using TaqMan probes was employed to quantify mRNA for proteolipid protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, nestin, and the GluR2 and NR1 subunits of glutamate receptors. We found widely different temporal and spatial patterns of altered gene expression after SCI, including instances of opposing up- and down-regulation at different locations in tissue immediately adjacent to the injury site. We conclude that greater use of the reliable and extremely sensitive technique of quantitative real-time PCR for regional tissue analysis is important for understanding the altered gene expression that occurs after CNS trauma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this study, we examined the effects of a 105 amino acid carboxyl terminal fragment of β-amyloid precursor protein (CT105) and inflammatory cytokines on working memory in rats, by using a three-panel runway set-up. CT105 at 10 nmol/side significantly impaired working memory when it was administered bilaterally into the hippocampus. Furthermore, to elucidate the interaction of CT105 with inflammatory cytokines, we co-administered tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in combination with CT105. Concurrent injections of CT105 (1.0 nmol/side) and TNF-α (100 ng/side) produced a synergistic deficit of working memory, whereas IL-1β (100 ng/side) combined with CT105 (1.0 nmol/side) did not affect the working memory performance. These results indicate that the CT105-induced impairment of working memory is strongly aggravated by an increase in the level of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, which may occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We previously reported that dehydroevodiamine·HCl (DHED) has anticholinesterase and antiamnesic activities. To verify the effects of DHED on cognitive deficits further, we tested it on the scopolamine-induced amnesia model of the rat using the passive avoidance and eight-arm radial maze tests. A single (20 mg/kg p.o.) and repeated (10 mg/kg p.o.) administrations of DHED could significantly reverse the latency time shortened by scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) to control level. The impaired spatial working memory induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was also improved significantly by a single injection (6.25 mg/kg i.p.) and repeated administrations of DHED (10 mg/kg p.o.) in the eight-arm radial maze test. In addition, we examined the effects of DHED on the memory impairment and the histological changes of the brain after unilateral electrolytic lesion of the entorhinal cortex (EC) and middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. The cognitive deficits caused by EC lesion and middle cerebral artery occlusion were improved significantly by repeated administrations of DHED (6.25 mg/kg i.p.) after EC lesion or ischemic insult once a day for 7 days in the passive avoidance test. Histological analysis showed that the neuronal loss in the DHED-treated group was notably reduced in the hippocampal area (CA1) of ischemic rats and in the dentate gyrus and hippocampal area (CA1 and CA3) of EC-lesioned rats compared with the nontreated group. The infarction area was decreased significantly by a single administration of DHED (6.25 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min before ischemic insult for 6 h. These results suggest that DHED might be an effective drug for not only the Alzheimer’s disease type, but also the vascular type of dementia.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2621
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of sugars (sucrose, glucose and xylose) at different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) on the dynamic rheological properties of gelatine (2% w/w) was investigated during ageing. Storage moduli (G′), when measured at 5 °C, decreased with increasing concentration of added sugar. Xylose was found to induce the greatest reduction in the values of G′. G′ values, measured as a function of ageing time (10 h) at 5 °C, increased rapidly at the initial stage and then reached a pseudoplateau region after long ageing times. Increasing the sugar concentration resulted in a decrease in the pseudoplateau values. The rate constant (K) for structure development of gelatine during ageing was described by apparent first-order kinetics. G′ and K values in gelatine–sugar composites increased in the following order: xylose 〈 glucose 〈 sucrose. The magnitudes of G′ at the end of ageing were much greater than those of G′′, showing a small dependence (slope = 0.005–0.088) on frequency (ω).
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The aim of this study was to identify the salivary components present in the pellicles formed on self-curing resin and to investigate the qualitative variations in adsorbed salivary pellicle compositions according to different exposure time to saliva. Experimental pellicles were formed by the incubation of polymerized resin particles with fresh human parotid or submandibular-sublingual saliva for either 20 min or 2 h. Pellicles were extracted using formic acid and lyophilized, they were then subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify the adsorbed salivary components. The amino acid profiles of the 2 h-pellicles were analysed and compared with those of fresh glandular salivas. There was a difference in the 2 h-pellicle components on the self-curing resin compared with those of other dental materials as well as tooth enamel. The amino acid profiles of the 2 h-pellicles were also different from those of fresh glandular salivas. In the case of submandibular-sublingual saliva, the components of the 2 h-pellicle showed a different pattern compared with those of the 20 min-pellicle. However, there was no significant difference between the components of the 2 h- and 20 min-pellicles in the case of parotid saliva. A distinct difference was found in the surface binding affinities of immunoglobulin (IgA) from different glandular salivas. The findings of this study provide information concerning the initial bacterial adhesion on the surfaces of self-curing resin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 140 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2621
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 139 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Fas, a cell surface receptor and member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily, induces apoptosis upon oligomerization by its ligand (Fas ligand: FasL). Detailed studies have revealed that Fas is broadly expressed in normal human tissues, but relatively little is known about the range of cell types capable of expressing FasL. The aim of this study was to determine the in vivo patterns of expression of Fas and FasL in human skin tissues. Immunohistochemistry was performed using paraffin-embedded samples of normal and neoplastic skin tissues. In normal skin, FasL was expressed in the epidermis, sebaceous glands, sweat glands and outer root sheath of the hair. In squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), all cases analysed expressed FasL at high levels, whereas 60% of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were positive for FasL. Expression of Fas in normal skin was observed in the basal and spinous layers of the epidermis, the outer root sheath of the hair, and the sebaceous glands. Expression of Fas was observed in all the SCC tested and none of the BCC tested. Expression of FasL by normal cells and tumour cells in skin tissue, demonstrated for the first time in the present study, may provide an important clue to understanding skin physiology, and immune evasion of skin tumours.
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