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  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We attempted to identify specific predictors of preoperative parental anxiety in a population of parents of healthy infants and children undergoing elective, outpatient surgery. We specifically examined the following factors: age of the child, whether or not the child had previous surgery, whether or not the parents» other children had previous surgery, parental gender, highest level of education obtained by the parent, and whether or not there was prior discussion between the parent and anaesthesiologist. In the immediate preoperative period, a questionnaire (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) was given to all parents of infants and children presenting for elective, outpatient surgery. Six hundred parents of 417 children, aged two months to 16 years (mean=4.5 years), participated in the study. They included 388 mothers and 212 fathers. Our results indicate that parents are more anxious when their child is less than one year of age and when it is the child's first surgery. When assessed separately by parental gender, both these factors were significant for mothers but not their fathers. We recommend that, although anaesthesiologists generally tailor their preoperative preparation based upon the best needs of their patients and families, they pay special attention to the groups we have identified which are at increased risk for preoperative anxiety.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2516
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We conducted a multicentre, cross- sectional study of 1042 haemophilia subjects across Europe to compare various health outcomes associated with on-demand vs. prophylactic factor-substitution therapy. Demographic, medical history, and healthcare resource utilization data were analysed along with the number of bleeding events over the past 6 months. Treatment-cost data were also examined to provide preliminary information for future economic studies. A logistic regression analysis, controlling for other statistically significant covariates, showed that patients treated on demand were 3.4 times more likely to have had a joint bleed over the previous 6 months than those treated with prophylaxis. Multiple regression analyses further confirmed these findings, because on-demand subjects had, on average, 5.15 more joint bleeds over the reporting period than patients treated with prophylaxis. Notably, these findings were even more dramatic for younger haemophilia patients when our study sample was stratified by age. Due to the high cost of factor replacement, healthcare costs were significantly higher for subjects treated prophylactically. While hospital costs for prophylaxis subjects were, on average, lower, statistically significant cost savings for prophylactic subjects were not noted. These results suggest that clinicians and health policy decision-makers should consider the advantages of prophylactic therapy for haemophilia patients in formulating treatment protocols and allocating health resources.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract : Increasing evidence suggests that apolipoprotein D (apoD) could play a major role in mediating neuronal degeneration and regeneration in the CNS and the PNS. To investigate further the temporal pattern of apoD expression after experimental traumatic brain injury in the rat, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral cortical impact injury. The animals were killed and examined for apoD mRNA and protein expression and for immunohistological analysis at intervals from 15 min to 14 days after injury. Increased apoD mRNA and protein levels were seen in the cortex and hippocampus ipsilateral to the injury site from 48 h to 14 days after the trauma. Immunohistological investigation demonstrated a differential pattern of apoD expression in the cortex and hippocampus, respectively : Increased apoD immunoreactivity in glial cells was detected from 2 to 3 days after the injury in cortex and hippocampus. In contrast, increased expression of apoD was seen in cortical and hippocampal neurons at later time points following impact injury. Concurrent histopathological examination using hematoxylin and eosin demonstrated dark, shrunken neurons in the cortex ipsilateral to the injury site. In contrast, no evidence of cell death was observed in the hippocampus ipsilateral to the injury site up to 14 days after the trauma. No evidence of increased apoD mRNA or protein expression or neuronal pathology by hematoxylin and eosin staining was detected in the contralateral cortex and hippocampus. Our results reveal induction of apoD expression in the cortex and hippocampus following traumatic brain injury in the rat. Our data also suggest that increased apoD expression may play an important role in cortical neuronal degeneration after brain injury in vivo. However, increased expression of apoD in the hippocampus may not necessarily be indicative of neuronal death.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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