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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148-5018 , USA , and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Futura Publishing, Inc.
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of preshock atrial pacing on the atrial defibrillation threshold (DFT) during internal cardioversion of AF. The implantable atrial defibrillator has been added to the therapeutic options for patients with recurrent episodes of persistent AF. Although the device is efficient in restoring sinus rhythm, patient discomfort is a limitation. Methods that lower the ADFT are needed. Eleven patients with AF underwent internal cardioversion. In a randomized, crossover design, ADFT testing was performed, applying a step-up protocol starting at 100 V. Rapid atrial pacing was performed with a right atrial catheter for 20 seconds at 90% of the average cycle length of the fibrillatory waves and was immediately followed by a biphasic defibrillation shock. At each energy level, pacing + shock was compared to shock only, until the level at which sinus rhythm was restored by both modes. The step-up protocol was thereafter repeated using the inverse sequence of the two modes. A total of 19 ADFTs were obtained. For 10 the ADFT was lower with pacing + shock, in 4 equal and in 5 higher, than with shock only. The ADFT (mean ± SD) with pacing + shock was 260 ± 84 V (3.4 ± 2.9 J) and did not differ from shock only: 268 ± 85 V (3.8 ± 3.0 J) (P 〉 0.05) . The coefficient of variation and the coefficient of reproducibility for pacing + shock was 16% and 60 V, respectively, and for shock only 17% and 61 V. Rapid atrial pacing did not influence the internal ADFT in AF. The randomized, crossover protocol used was reproducible between different modes, and seems useful when testing the impact of different interventions on the ADFT. (PACE 2003; 26[Pt. I]:1461–1466)
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Three different transcripts of the homeodomain gene termed pituitary homeobox (Ptx) 2 (Pitx2/Brx/Rieg/Solurshin/Arp) were cloned from different species encoding proteins belonging to the paired-like family of homeodomain proteins. Ptx2a (324 amino acids), Ptx2b (271 amino acids), and Ptx2c (318 amino acids) share the C terminus, including the homeodomain, and have different N termini. Here we report the comparative analysis of all three different Ptx2 splice variants for their transcriptional activity and their expression pattern in the adult rat brain. Ptx2 is able to trans-activate via different model promoters in different cell lines. A mild difference in trans-activating potential is observed among the splice variants, but the underlying mechanism is at present unknown. It is surprising that all Ptx2 transcripts displayed an identical expression pattern in the brain. This markedly restricted pattern is limited to the following brain areas: the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland, the subthalamic nucleus, the posterior hypothalamic nucleus, the mammillary bodies, the red nucleus, and the deep gray layer of the superior colliculus. The data presented suggest that all variants of Ptx2 are involved in the development and regulation of distinct neuronal cell groups and the pituitary gland.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, which takes place in different types of neuronal systems and nonneuronal tissues. The transcriptional regulation of the TH gene, which is complex and highly variable among different tissues, reflects this heterogeneity. We recently isolated a homeodomain transcription factor, named Ptx3, that is uniquely expressed in the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area, which together form the mesencephalic dopaminergic system. This strict localization and its coinciding induction of expression with the TH gene during development suggested a possible role for this transcription factor in the control of the TH gene. We report here the presence of a responsive element for Ptx3 located at position -50 to -45 of the rat TH promoter. Transient transfections using TH promoter constructs and electrophoretic mobility shift assays using Ptx3-containing nuclear extracts demonstrated that this region binds Ptx3 protein and confers a transcriptional effect on the TH gene. Depending on the cell type, the effect of Ptx3 was an eight- to 12-fold enhancement of TH promoter activity in Neuro2A neuroblastoma cells, or a 60-80% repression in nonneuronal human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Despite the close association of the Ptx3-binding site and the major cyclic AMP-response element in the TH gene, no interplay was found between Ptx3 and cyclic AMP-modulating agents. In combination with the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1, which is required for the induction of the TH gene in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, the TH promoter activity to Ptx3 was enhanced in Neuro2A cells. Nurr1 alone displayed only very weak activity on the TH promoter in this cell type. The results demonstrate that the homeodomain protein Ptx3 has the potential to act on the promoter of the TH gene in a markedly cell type-dependent fashion. This suggests that Ptx3 contributes to the regulation of TH expression in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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