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  • Blackwell Verlag GmbH  (5)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1439-0264
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Computed tomography (CT) is a modern technique of image diagnosis particularly recommended in human medicine to evaluate the existence of pulmonary pathological changes such as neoplasms, metastasis, interstitial infiltrates, etc. In veterinary medicine, however, few anatomical and clinical CT studies in the dog have used apparatus of the latest generation, including injection of intravenous contrast and application of regional specific CT windows with different window width (WW) and window level (WL) to evaluate the lungs, the pulmonary vessels and the bronchial structures. This methodology allows the obtaining of clear CT images with high capacity of tissue discrimination and different shades of attenuation. In this work we have planned a tomographic study of the lungs of the dog by using a six-generation spiral CT scanner (Toshiba Ex Vision), belonging to the private Medical Institute of Radiology ‘Irion’ of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Four mixed-breed mature dogs (4–6 years, 15–20 kg) were used, two males and two females. The dogs were anaesthetized and kept in a maximum inspiration when obtaining the images. Dogs were placed in a stretcher in a ventral or sternal recumbency. Previously, the contrast urografin® was injected in the cephalic vein. Different CT windows were applied in order to increase the quality of the images: pulmonary window (WW 928; WL -680), high-resolution pulmonary window (WW 1085; WL -750), and soft tissue window (WW 652; WL -34). The use of intravenous contrast, different CT windows and a modern CT apparatus produced excellent images of the pulmonary parenchyma, the pleural cavity, the pulmonary veins, the lobular rami of the pulmonary artery and the lobular bronchi.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1439-0264
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In eight specimens of Atlantic sea bass of commercial size (≅350 g) muscle cellularity was studied at two selected sampling levels of the trunk axial musculature: caudal (anal opening) and cranial (fourth radius of the dorsal fin). The following parameters were quantified at both sampling levels: white muscle cross-sectional area, white muscle fibre diameter (900–1200 fibres), muscle fibre number and muscle fibre density. Results showed a higher total cross-sectional area at cranial than at caudal level (P 〈 0.05), what is related with their different gross morphology. However, the white muscle fibre size distribution, as well as the muscle fibre number and density did not show significant differences between them. This study contributes to typify muscle fibre sampling in sea bass of commercial size what is of great interest for morphometric studies where white muscle cellularity is commonly correlated with textural or organoleptic parameters.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1439-0264
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this study, the differentiation of adult and postnatal muscle fibres in sheep longissimus thoracis muscle has been characterized. By using a variety of histochemical methods, we have investigated the m-ATPase and metabolic activities of skeletal muscle fibres in adult sheep and lambs aged between 1 day and 3 months. Types I, IIA, IIB and IIC fibres were identified. The results showed that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. The findings also revealed that the fibre types IIA and IIB can be separated histochemically in sheep by using the correct m-ATPase technique, even at early stages of postnatal development, and that the origin of the four different fibres of the adult can be traced back to early postnatal stages.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1439-0264
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Muscle growth was studied in larvae of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., reared at two temperatures: real ambient temperature (≅15°C during vitelline phase and increased gradually) and 19°C from fertilization until the end of larval development. Muscle cellularity, body length and body weight were measured.Early temperature influenced larval development and so, pre-larval phase finished earlier at 19°C than at ambient temperature (4 and 6 days, respectively). Temperature also affected muscle growth such that at hatching and at mouth opening hypertrophy of muscle fibres was greater at 19°C (P 〈 0.05), whereas hyperplasia was similar in both groups. After 25 days, the cross-sectional area of the white muscle was greater at 19°C (P 〈 0.05), which was mainly associated with a higher proliferation of new white muscle fibres. At this stage the body length was also higher at 19°C. Metamorphosis finished earlier in fish reared at 19°C (52 days) than at natural temperature (82 days). At this developmental stage body length and cross-sectional area of the myotome were similar in both groups. However, muscle cellularity differed between groups. Thus, hypertrophy of muscle fibres was higher in fish reared at ambient temperature (P 〈 0.05), whereas proliferation of new muscle fibres was higher at 19°C (P 〉 0.05).
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1439-0264
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Accurate interpretation of thoracic magnetic resonance images requires a thorough knowledge of anatomy of this region. The purpose of this communication is to describe the normal cross sectional anatomy of the thoracic cavity of the cat, using MR images, dissections and macroscopic sections. In this study, three cats were used. The animals were anesthetized and positioned in sternal recumbency in the MR scanner. MR imaging was performed at the Special Diagnostic Service of San Roque Clinic of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria with a superconducting magnet operating at a field strength of 1.5 Tesla and a human body coil. Spin echo pulse sequences were used to obtain T1-weighted images in tranverse and sagittal planes. At the conclusion of imaging, the cats were euthanatized for medical reasons unrelated to disease of thorax. The cats were frozen and then sectioned using an electric band saw. The cuts were matched as closely as possible to the MR images for identifying the normal planimetric anatomy of the thoracic structures. MR T1-weighted spin echo images provided excellent anatomic appearance of the thorax structures. In MR images the grey scale is directly related to the signal intensity of the thoracic cavity structures. Thus, fat and nerves had higher signal intensity compared with the lower signal intensity of the respiratory system. Bone marrow and muscles had a intermediate signal intensity and appeared gray. The intensity signal of the articular fluid permits a good differentiation of the opposing cartilage surfaces on all MR images. The planimetric or sectional anatomy of the thoracic cavity in the cat allows a correct morphologic and topographic evaluation of the anatomic structures, being helpful tool for the identification of the MR images. The information presented should serve as an initial reference to evaluate MR images of the feline thorax and to assist interpretation of lesions of this region.
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