Intracellular iron is tightly regulated by coordinated expression of iron transport and storage genes, such as transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1) and ferritin. They are primarily regulated by iron through iron-induced dissociation of iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) from iron-responsive elements (IREs) in the 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of TfR1 or 5'-UTR of ferritin mRNA, resulting in destabilization of TfR1 mRNA and release of ferritin translation block. Thus high iron decreases iron transport via TfR1 mRNA degradation and increases iron storage via ferritin translational up-regulation. However, the molecular mechanism of TfR1 mRNA destabilization in response to iron remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that miR-7-5p and miR-141-3p target 3'-TfR1 IREs and down-regulate TfR1 mRNA and protein expression. Conversely, miR-7-5p and miR-141-3p antagomiRs partially but significantly blocked iron- or IRP knockdown-induced down-regulation of TfR1 mRNA, suggesting the interplay between these microRNAs and IRPs along with involvement of another uncharacterized mechanism in TfR1 mRNA degradation. Luciferase reporter assays using 3'-UTR TfR1 IRE mutants suggested that the IREs C and E are targets of miR-7-5p and miR-141-3p, respectively. Furthermore, miR-7 expression was inversely correlated with TfR1 mRNA in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma patient samples. These results suggest a role of microRNAs in the TfR1 regulation in the IRP–IRE system.