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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Catherine Cheng, Roberta B. Nowak, Michael B. Amadeo, Sondip K. Biswas, Woo-Kuen Lo, and Velia M. Fowler Tropomyosins (Tpms) stabilize F-actin and regulate interactions with other actin-binding proteins. The eye lens changes shape in order to focus light to transmit a clear image, and thus lens organ function is tied to its biomechanical properties, presenting an opportunity to study Tpm functions in tissue mechanics. Mouse lenses contain Tpm3.5 (also known as TM5NM5), a previously unstudied isoform encoded by Tpm3 , which is associated with F-actin on lens fiber cell membranes. Decreased levels of Tpm3.5 lead to softer and less mechanically resilient lenses that are unable to resume their original shape after compression. While cell organization and morphology appear unaffected, Tmod1 dissociates from the membrane in Tpm3.5-deficient lens fiber cells resulting in reorganization of the spectrin–F-actin and α-actinin–F-actin networks at the membrane. These rearranged F-actin networks appear to be less able to support mechanical load and resilience, leading to an overall change in tissue mechanical properties. This is the first in vivo evidence that a Tpm protein is essential for cell biomechanical stability in a load-bearing non-muscle tissue, and indicates that Tpm3.5 protects mechanically stable, load-bearing F-actin in vivo . This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9533
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9137
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Company of Biologists
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-28
    Description: Objectives This study aimed to assess the relationship between infection with multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types and abnormal anal cytology in HIV-infected men. Design An observational, cross-sectional study. Setting A regional referral hospital in Taiwan. Participants In total, 714 HIV-infected men were enrolled between March 2011 and June 2016. Thin preparation anal Pap smears were interpreted according to the 2001 Bethesda System. Thirty-seven types of HPV were detected by reverse line blotting, including 13 oncogenic types and 24 non-oncogenic types. Outcome measures The relationship between anal HPV infection and abnormal anal cytology in people of Asian ethnicity and the coverage efficacy in HPV-vaccinated HIV-infected men. Results On anal cytology, 175 (24.5%) subjects had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or higher grades of dysplasia, including 87 (49.7%) with ASCUS, 73 (41.7%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and 15 (8.6%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). A higher proportion of subjects with those without LSIL/HSIL (93.1% vs 67.3%, P〈0.0001) had multiple HPV types. The odds of having LSIL/HSIL increased with an increasing number of HPV types: the ORs ranged from 1 for no HPV types to 6.96 (95% CI 2.38 to 20.37) for more than five types (P trend 〈0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between LSIL/HSIL and the number of HPV genotypes present (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.42, P〈0.05). HPV types covered by the nonavalent HPV vaccine (types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) were detected in 70.1% of the patients in this study. Conclusions The odds of having anal LSIL/HSIL are approximately seventimes greater in HIV-infected men with than withoutsix or more types of HPV. Multiple HPV types in HIV-infected patients deserves aggressive follow-up, and HPV vaccination programme require scaling up.
    Keywords: Oncology, Open access
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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