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  • 1
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Proteins ; Life sciences ; Protein Science ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Protein Engineering - Past, Present, and Future -- (Semi)rational Protein Design -- Computational Analysis of Protein Tunnels and Channels -- YASARA - A Tool to Obtain Structural Guidance in Biocatalytic Investigations -- A Computational Library Design Protocol for Rapid Improvement of Protein Stability ́€“ FRESCO -- Directed Evolution of Proteins Based on Mutational Scanning -- A Brief Guide to the High-throughput Expression of Directed Evolution Libraries -- Library Growth and Protein Expression: Optimal and Reproducible Microtiter Plate Expression of Recombinant Enzymes in E. coli using MTP Shakers -- Normalized Screening of Protein Engineering Libraries by Split-GFP Crude Cell Extract Quantification -- Functional Analysis of Membrane Proteins Produced by Cell-Free Translation -- Practical Considerations Regarding the Choice of the Best High-throughput Assay -- High-throughput Screening Assays for Lipolytic Enzymes -- Continuous High-throughput Colorimetric Assays for Îł-transaminases -- Colorimetric High-troughput Screening Assays for the Directed Evolution of Fungal Laccases -- Directed Co-evolution of Two Cellulosic Enzymes in Escherichia coli Based on their Synergistic Reactions -- Program-guided Design of High-throughput Enzyme Screening Experiments and Automated Data Analysis/Evaluation -- Solid Phase Agar Plate Assay for Screening Amine Transaminases -- Ultrahigh-throughput Screening of Single-cell Lysates for Directed Evolution and Functional Metagenomics -- Isolation of pH-sensitive Antibody Fragments by Fluorescence-activated Cell Sorting and Yeast Surface Display -- Library Generation and Auxotrophic Selection Assays in Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophiles.℗
    Abstract: This volume details basic and advanced protocols for both stages of protein engineering: the library design phase and the identification of improved variants by screening and selection. Chapters focus on enzyme engineering using rational and semi-rational approaches. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Protein Engineering: Methods and Protocols aims to aid scientists in the planning and performance of their experiments.℗
    Pages: XI, 352 p. 82 illus., 63 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493973668
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The possibility is shown to produce a thermopile by electroplating, the sensitivity of which is independent from the reference temperature. In this case the deposition must have a fixed thickness depending upon the cross section of the base wire. A copper-constantan-thermopile made in this way has a sensitivity being 23 per cent smaller than that of a normal thermopile of the same materials and with the same number of junctions; its linearity is improved by this process.
    Abstract: Résumé On montre qu'il est possible de construire une pile thermoélectrique par galvanoplastie dont la sensibilité est indépendante de la température de référence. Le dépôt galvanique doit avoir une certaine épaisseur en rapport avec la section du noyau. Une pile cuivre-constantan de cette nature a une sensibilité de 23% plus faible qu'une pile normale de même composition et du même nombre de soudures; le processus de fabrication indiqué rend plus linéaires ses indications.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wird gezeigt, daß es möglich ist, auf galvanischem Wege Thermosäulen zu erzeugen, deren Empfindlichkeit von der Bezugstemperatur unabhängig ist. Der galvanische Niederschlag muß hierbei eine bestimmte Stärke besitzen, die vom Querschnitt des Materials der Unterlage abhängt. Eine entsprechend dimensionierte Kupfer-Konstantan-Thermosäule besitzt eine um 23% geringere Empfindlichkeit als eine normale Thermosäule der gleichen Materialien und gleicher Gliederzahl; ihre Linearität wird durch dieses Verfahren verbessert.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 76.30F ; 76.30H ; 71.70J
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The possibilities to identify small diluted paramagnetic cluster defects in solids by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance are demonstrated in two examples: the Mn 4 0 cluster and a Cu-Au cluster in silicon crystals. A comprehensive picture of the clusters can be given containing the chemical nature of the constituents, the spatial arrangement, the charge states and the electronic structure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary 313 anaerobic gram-negative rods of theBacteroides genus isolated from 295 clinical specimens were tested for their sensitivity to azlocillin and mezlocillin using the dilution method with agar plates. 25 mg/l of azlocillin inhibited 80.2% of the strains and the same concentration of mezlocillin inhibited 86.9%. The somewhat higherin vitro activity of mezlocillin is also seen by the lower mean minimal inhibitory concentration, which is approx. 23.6 mg/l for mezlocillin and 27.6 mg/l for azlocillin. The highest resistance for both drugs were found withB. distasonis (14 strains), followed byB. thetaiotaomicron (63 strains),B. fragilis (161 strains) andB. uniformis (7 strains). The good sensitivity of strains belonging to theB. melaninogenicus group corresponds to the well-known sensitivity of these micro-organisms to penicillins. On the basis of a “break point” of 25 mg/l, a decrease in the proportion of sensitive strains was found between 1974 and 1979. 50 mg/l, a concentration which can be maintained over a longer period of time if applied in a suitable manner, will inhibit 97.4% (azlocillin) and 98.4% (mezlocillin) of the strains. Thus in our opinion azlocillin and especially mezlocillin are suitable drugs for the initial therapy of pyogenous infections in which intestinalBacteroidaceae are of pathogenic significance.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung 313 aus 295 klinischen Untersuchungsmaterialien isolierte anaerobe gramnegative Stäbchen des GenusBacteroides wurden im Agarplattenverdünnungstest auf ihre Sensibilität gegenüber Azlocillin und Mezlocillin getestet. Durch 25 mg/l Azlocillin wurden 80,2% und durch die gleiche Konzentration Mezlocillin 86,9% der Stämme gehemmt. Die etwas höhereIn-vitro-Aktivität des Mezlocillin kommt auch in der geringeren mittleren minimalen Hemmkonzentration zum Ausdruck. Für Mezlocillin betrug sie 23,6 mg/l und für Azlocillin 27,6 mg/l. Die höchsten Resistenzquoten entfielen bei diesen Chemotherapeutika aufB. distasonis (14 Stämme), gefolgt vonB. thetaiotaomicron (63 Stämme) undB. fragilis (161 Stämme) bzw.B. uniformis (7 Stämme). Die gute Empfindlichkeit von Keimen derB. melaninogenicus-Gruppe stimmt mit der guten Penicillinsensibilität dieser Erreger überein. Unter Zugrundelegung eines „break point“ von 25 mg/l wurde für den Zeitraum von 1974 bis 1979 bereits ein Abfall des Anteils sensibler Stämme festgestellt. Durch 50 mg/l, eine Konzentration, die bei geeigneter Applikationsform über einen längeren Zeitraum realisierbar ist, werden 97,4% (Azlocillin) bzw. 98,4% (Mezlocillin) der Stämme gehemmt. Damit eignen sich nach unserer Auffassung Azlocillin und in besonderem Maße Mezlocillin auch zur ungezielten Initialtherapie von pyogenen Infektionen, bei denen intestinaleBacteroidaceae pathogenetisch bedeutsam sind.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-8943
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Methoden zur Temperatur- und Enthalpiekalibrierung von DSC und DTA Instrumenten werden dargestellt. Dieses Forschungsvorhaben wurde von der Gesellschaft für Thermische Analyse (GEFTA) unterstützt. Gründe werden dargelegt, weshalb die Temperaturkalibrierung auf Referenzsubstanzen abgestützt werden soll, die in der Internationalen Temperaturskala (ITS90) aufgeführt sind. Ebenso wird das schwierige Unterfangen der kalorischen Kalibrierung mit mehreren unterschiedlichen Methoden erlÄutert, und geeignete Referenzsubstanzen werden vorgestellt.
    Notes: Abstract The development of methods for temperature and heat calibration of DSC and DTA supported by the German Society of Thermal Analysis (GEFTA) are presented. Reasons are given for the recommendation of the temperature calibration method, which refers to the valid international temperature scale (ITS 90) and takes into account the fact that the fixpoints of this scale are defined in two phase equilibrium. Furthermore the hard problems with the heat flow and peak area calibration of DSC are described and the methods are presented to come to realistic and sufficient results. Thus both traditional (with the aid ofC p — and enthalpy — reference materials) and electrical calibration are critically discussed. Today's best values of suitable materials for heat calibration are reported.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-8943
    Keywords: constraints ; gel-spun UHMW-PE fibers ; hindrance of endothermic transitions ; melting behaviour ; poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) coating ; temperature modulated DSC
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The method of temperature modulated DSC has been applied to obtain additional information about the effect of constraints on the melting behaviour of gel-spun ultra high molecular mass polyethylene (UHMW-PE) fibers coated with a high temperature stable poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) polymer. The underlying signal, corresponding to the normal DSC signal, reveals two endothermic peaks for the coated PE fibers. A shift in the underlying and magnitude signal from 142 to 145°C at 0.1 K min–1 , a relative small magnitude signal, together with a vanishing step-like change in the phase signal with increasing PPX coating layer thickness characterize the constraints in terms of a hindrance of the melting of the unconstrained orthorhombic crystal fraction. The time constant of the melting process can be estimated as larger than the reciprocal angular frequency 1/ω=5 s of the modulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-8943
    Keywords: cold crystallization ; DSC ; heat capacity ; modulated temperature DSC ; poly(ethylene terephtalate)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetric method (MT-DSC) yields three temperature dependent signals, an underlying heat capacity curve from the underlying heat flow rate (corresponding to the conventional DSC signal), and a complex heat capacity curve with a real part (storage heat capacity) and an imaginary part (loss heat capacity). These curves have been measured in the cold crystallization region for poly(ethylene terephtalate) with a modified Perkin-Elmer DSC-7. The underlying curve shows the well known large exothermic crystallization peak. The storage heat capacity shows a step change which reproduces the change in heat capacity during crystallization. This curve may be used as baseline, to separate the crystallization heat flow rate from the underlying heat flow rate curve. The loss heat capacity curve exhibits a small exothermic peak at the temperature of the step change of the storage curve. It could be caused by changes of the molecular mobility during crystallization.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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