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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Spike density and processing quality are important traits in modern wheat production and are controlled by multiple gene loci. The associated genes have been intensively studied and new discoveries have been constantly reported during the past few decades. However, no gene playing a significant role in the development of these two traits has been identified. In the current study, a common wheat mutant with extremely compact spikes and good processing quality was isolated and characterized. A new allele ( Q c1 ) of the Q gene (an important domestication gene) responsible for the mutant phenotype was cloned, and the molecular mechanism for the mutant phenotype was studied. Results revealed that Q c1 originated from a point mutation that interferes with the miRNA172-directed cleavage of Q transcripts, leading to its overexpression. It also reduces the longitudinal cell size of rachises, resulting in an increased spike density. Furthermore, Q c1 increases the number of vascular bundles, which suggests a higher efficiency in the transportation of assimilates in the spikes of the mutant than that of wild type. This accounts for the improved processing quality. The effects of Q c1 on spike density and wheat processing quality were confirmed by analyzing nine common wheat mutants possessing four different Q c alleles. These results deepen our understanding of the key roles of Q gene, and provide new insights for the potential application of Q c alleles in wheat quality breeding.
    Electronic ISSN: 2160-1836
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-07
    Description: The plant circadian clock allows the synchronization of internal physiological responses to match the predicted environment. HSP90.2 is a molecular chaperone that has been previously described as required for the proper functioning of the Arabidopsis oscillator under both ambient and warm temperatures. Here, we have characterized the circadian phenotype of the hsp90.2-3 mutant. As previously reported using pharmacological or RNA interference inhibitors of HSP90 function, we found that hsp90.2-3 lengthens the circadian period and that the observed period lengthening was more exaggerated in warm–cold-entrained seedlings. However, we observed no role for the previously identified interactors of HSP90.2, GIGANTEA and ZEITLUPPE, in HSP90 -mediated period lengthening. We constructed phase-response curves (PRCs) in response to warmth pulses to identify the entry point of HSP90.2 to the oscillator. These PRCs revealed that hsp90.2-3 has a circadian defect within the morning. Analysis of the cca1 , lhy , prr9 , and prr7 mutants revealed a role for CCA1, LHY, and PRR7, but not PRR9, in HSP90.2 action to the circadian oscillator. Overall, we define a potential pathway for how HSP90.2 can entrain the Arabidopsis circadian oscillator.
    Print ISSN: 0016-6731
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-10
    Description: The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is involved in IgG metabolism and transport in placental mammals. However, whether FcRn is responsible for IgG transfer from maternal serum to colostrum/milk is controversial. Interestingly, large domestic animals, such as cows, pigs, sheep, and horses, in which passive IgG transfer is exclusively completed via colostrum/milk, all express an FcRn α-chain that is shorter in the cytoplasmic tail (CYT) than its counterparts in humans and rodents. To address whether the length variation has any functional significance, we performed in vitro experiments using the Transwell system with the MDCK cell line stably transfected with various FcRn constructs; these clearly suggested that truncation of the CYT tail caused a polar change in IgG transfer. However, we observed no evidence supporting functional changes in IgG in vivo using mice in which the FcRn CYT was precisely truncated. These data suggest that the length variation in FcRn is not functionally associated with passive IgG transfer routes in mammals.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Description: Ligation of Dectin-1 by fungal glucans elicits a Th17 response that is necessary for clearing many fungal pathogens. Laminarin is a (1-〉3, 1-〉6)-β-glucan that is widely reported to be a Dectin-1 antagonist, however, there are reports that laminarin is also a Dectin-1 agonist. To address this controversy, we assessed the physical properties, structure, purity, Dectin-1 binding, and biological activity of five different laminarin preparations from three different commercial sources. The proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that all of the preparations contained laminarin although their molecular mass varied considerably (4400–34,400 Da). Two of the laminarins contained substantial quantities of very low m.w. compounds, some of which were not laminarin. These low m.w. moieties could be significantly reduced by extensive dialysis. All of the laminarin preparations were bound by recombinant human Dectin-1 and mouse Dectin-1, but the affinity varied considerably, and binding affinity did not correlate with Dectin-1 agonism, antagonism, or potency. In both human and mouse cells, two laminarins were Dectin-1 antagonists and two were Dectin-1 agonists. The remaining laminarin was a Dectin-1 antagonist, but when the low m.w. moieties were removed, it became an agonist. We were able to identify a laminarin that is a Dectin-1 agonist and a laminarin that is Dectin-1 antagonist, both of which are relatively pure preparations. These laminarins may be useful in elucidating the structure and activity relationships of glucan/Dectin-1 interactions. Our data demonstrate that laminarin can be either a Dectin-1 antagonist or agonist, depending on the physicochemical properties, purity, and structure of the laminarin preparation employed.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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