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  • 1
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  GMS Krankenhaushygiene Interdisziplinär; VOL: 2; DOC09 /20070913/
    Publication Date: 2007-09-14
    Description: In the early 60s the first specialists for hospital hygiene came on the scene in Scandinavia too. From the outset this new discipline was based on cooperation between doctors and nurses, with the support of hospital-based microbiology laboratories and of sterilization departments. Teaching programs were soon devised, with training being underpinned by manuals featuring working instructions. Automated washing facilities for bedpans, etc. or washing machines for medical instruments became widespread practice very quickly; these initially used hot water, and later steam, for disinfection. For many years now, this equipment is found not only in hospitals but in virtually all healthcare establishments too. This has considerably helped to reduce chemical disinfection of medical instruments. As regards disinfection of heat-sensitive instruments the Scandinavian countries adopted different approaches: Finland gave preference to ethylene oxide sterilization, while Sweden opted for lower temperatures and for formaldehyde (low-temperature, steam formaldehyde (LTSF) sterilization), a technique imported from England and further developed in Sweden. During the 70s there were several cases of hepatitis B infections contracted in hospitals, particularly in dialysis units and by hospital personnel. The requirement that gloves be worn when carrying out working procedures has resulted in a major decrease in the infection rate and has helped to prevent HIV (AIDS) infections. However, to date it has not been possible to offset the risk of bloodborne infection against latex intolerance. Infection statistics were introduced in the 80s and since the late 90s we, too, are waging battle (later than other countries) against resistant bacteria (MRSA, VRE, multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria). For some years now we no longer use the term "hospital hygiene" either, using instead "infection in healthcare settings" in view of the extended fields of application. Whether our strategy has proved successful for prevention of infection? Who could give a clear answer to such a question? Cost pressures in the healthcare sector will have a negative effect on the infection rate despite the fact that the progress made by science should really bring about a reduction in this rate. This conjures up a situation analogous to that of a downward escalator that one is trying to ascend: it is as if one were not moving, not making any progress.
    Description: In den frühen 60er Jahren tauchten auch in Skandinavien die ersten Spezialisten für Krankenhaushygiene auf. Die neue Disziplin basierte von Beginn an auf der Zusammenarbeit von Ärzten und dem Pflegepersonal, unterstützt von mikrobiologischen Laboratorien in den Krankenhäusern sowie Sterilisationsabteilungen. Die Lehren wurden schnell angenommen. Handbücher mit Arbeitsanweisungen erleichterten Schulung und Training. Besonders schnell wurden die automatischen Waschanlagen für Bettpfannen etc oder die Waschmaschinen für medizinische Instrumente akzeptiert, die zunächst mit Hilfe von heißem Wasser, später mit Dampf desinfizierten. Seit vielen Jahren findet man diese Geräte nicht nur in Krankenhäusern, sondern in praktisch allen Einrichtungen des Gesundheitswesens. Das hat dabei geholfen, die chemische Desinfektion von medizinischen Instrumenten deutlich zu reduzieren. Bei der Desinfektion Wärme-empfindlicher Gerätschaften gingen die skandinavischen Ländern unterschiedliche Wege: Finnland bevorzugte die Äthylenoxid-Sterilisation, Schweden entschied sich für niedrigere Temperaturen und Formaldehyd (LTSF), ein Verfahren, das aus England übernommen und in Schweden weiter entwickelt worden war. In den 70er Jahren kam es zu etlichen Hepatitis B Infektionen in Krankenhäusern, vorzugsweise in Dialyse-Einheiten, betroffen waren vor allem Krankenhausmitarbeiter. Die Anforderung, Handschuhe während der Arbeit zu tragen, hat die Zahl der Infektionen drastisch reduziert und auch dabei geholfen, AIDS Infektionen zu verhindern. Die Balance zwischen dem Risiko einer Infektion über Blut und der Unverträglichkeit gegenüber Latex ist allerdings noch nicht gefunden. In den 80er Jahren wurden die Infektionsstatistiken eingeführt und seit den späten 90er Jahren kämpfen auch wir nun (später als andere Länder) gegen resistente Keime (MRSA, VRE, multi-resistente gramnegative Keime). Seit einigen Jahren sprechen wir auch nicht mehr von der "Krankenhaushygiene", sondern, auf Grund des erweiterten Anwendungsbereichs, von "Infektionen im Gesundheitswesen". Ob wir mit unserem Weg erfolgreich sind in der Abwehr von Infektionen? Wer könnte eine solche Frage eindeutig beantworten? Der Kostendruck im Gesundheitswesen wird sich auf die Infektionsrate negativ auswirken, obwohl der Fortschritt in der Wissenschaft eigentlich zu einer Senkung führen sollte. Wie auf einer Rolltreppe, der nach unten fährt, und auf der man versucht, nach oben zu kommen: Das wirkt, als stände man still, als käme man nicht voran.
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: article
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The hybrid knowledge-based system proposed in this paper consists of a “stiff” segment, viz. the expert system based on the object-oriented approach, and a flexible part, viz. the neural network. Some of the input parameters of the problem and output parameters of the “stiff” system are presented as the fuzzy numbers. Detailed information is also presented about the development of the neural network. The most evident advantages of the proposed introduction of a hybrid architecture of the knowledge-based system are a faster evaluation and generation of design alternatives and support of systematic searches and storage of experience. In addition, the resulting ability to extrapolate results would be unattainable with separately acting stiff and flexible systems. A system for the estimation of the parameters of a mixing system for wastewater treatment is presented as an example to illustrate the principles of the hybrid system.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: In the present investigation, the sedimentation behavior, over an extended concentration range, in solutions of polystyrenes under good, marginal, and theta solvent conditions, is analyzed in the framework of a recent theoretical model, which takes into account the gradual screening of both hydrodynamic and excluded-volume interactions in the semidilute regime. The model inspires the construction of universal plots of the form S/S0 versus ksc, where S is the sedimentation coefficient at polymer concentration c, S0 is that at infinite dilution, and ks is the concentration dependence coefficient. The resulting analytical expressions, without adjustable parameters, are consistent with experimental sedimentation data over the whole concentration range studied.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 26 (1981), S. 3385-3393 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Measurements of relaxation times, T1 and T2, and self-diffusion coefficients, D, for small molecules, viz., H2O, dioxane and t-butanol, in the gel system cellulose/H2O are reported and compared with those for H2O in a polyacrylamide gel of the same polymer content. The temperature dependence of T1 and D can for all the penetrants be represented by Arrhenius type relations which merely are parallel shifts by the same amount, towards smaller values, of those obtained without polymer. The T2 values for H2O in both gels pass through a shallow minimum over the considered temperature interval (14°-44°C). Furthermore, relaxation times T1 of D2O in the gel system cellulose/D2O are reported; in a plot of ln T1 vs. 1/T, a plateau region is observed at higher temperatures.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1022-1352
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Linear and nonlinear viscoelasticity of semidilute aqueous solutions of an unmodified reference polyacrylamide (PAM) and of a hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide (HM-PAM) in the presence of various amounts of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and at different temperatures have been examined. Oscillatory shear experiments in the linear viscoelastic domain revealed significant polymer-surfactant interaction for the HM-PAM-SDS system at a surfactant concentration of ca. 8 mmol/kg, whereas practically no surfactant effect is observed for the PAM-SDS system. The rheological features for the HM-PAM-SDS system are found to be strongly dependent upon the level of surfactant addition, with first an increase and then a decrease in the values of parameters such as the dynamic viscosity. While the position of the maximum of the viscosity curve, with regard to the surfactant concentration, is independent of polymer concentration and temperature, the strength of the network is promoted by increasing polymer content and decreasing temperature. At higher surfactant concentrations, a breakdown of chain associations occurred. A non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior, as well as a thixotropy, is detected for HM-PAM solutions in the presence of surfactant. These effects are most pronounced at ca. 8 mmol/kg SDS at the lowest temperature. The rheological features reveal that the hydrophobic associations, induced by HM-PAM-SDS interactions, play an important role for the viscoelastic properties of the system.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 26-34 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: ultrafiltration ; modification ; gelatin ; fouling ; protein ; zeta potential ; membrane ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A dye-binding procedure was developed for the analysis of protein attached to the membrane, with bound and adsorbed forms of attachment being distinguished. The relationship between modification procedure and protein attachment was explored and related to flux, streaming potential, and rejection with variation of pH. The effects of attaching four different types of gelatin to the membrane were studied. Assessment was made of modifications for improvement of flux and selectivity in the presence of protein foulants. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 26-34, 1998.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chicester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Molecular Recognition 11 (1998), S. 263-265 
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Cellulose ; powder ; surface area ; crystallinity ; algae ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The surface are and crystallinity was measured on a cellulose powder made from Cladophora sp. algae. The algae cellulose powder was found to have a very high surface area (63.4 m2/g, N2 gas adsorption) and build up of cellulose with a high crystallinity (≈100%, solid state NMR). The high surface area was confirmed by calculations from atomic force microscope imaging of microfibrils from Cladophora sp. algae.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Placenta ; Decidua ; Endometrium ; Parental imprinting ; Promoter ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: IGF2 is expressed in both placental and decidual tissues, enabling an analysis of the parental imprinting over the fetomaternal boundary. Evidence is provided that IGF2 is monoallelically expressed in both placenta and pregnant, as well as nonpregnant, endometrium. These observations suggest that the maternally derived IGF2 allele is inactivated during germline transmission. Comparison of promoter usage in decidua and placental samples shows that the P3 promoter appears to regulated independently of the others. These observations are discussed with respect to current models of IGF2 imprinting and the hypothesized conflict of parental reproductive interests which bears on the phenomenon of parental imprinting. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Sedimentation velocity data on polystyrene in a good solvent (toluene) and in a theta solvent (cyclopentane), over a large concentration range are reported. Under good-solvent conditions the exponent β in the apparent scaling law describing the concentration dependence of the sedimentation coefficient (s ∝ cβ) in the semidiiute region is found to be concentration dependent. However, a power law fit to data for the highest molecular weight (M = 20.6 × 106) in the concentration region (c 〈 2 kg m-3) yields a value β = -0.59, somewhat smaller than that (-0.54) predicted theoretically. This discrepancy and the observed curvature in logs vs. logc at higher concentrations are discussed. Under theta-solvent conditions, on the other hand, the concentration dependence of s in the semidilute regime can be represented by a simple power law, with β = -1.0, in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction. The crossover concentration c*, separating the dilute and semidilute concentration regimes, was found to be well defined and located at c = 1/[η]. c* varies with molecular weight as M-0.73 and M-0.50 under good-solvent and theta-solvent conditions, respectively.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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