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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  69. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie (DGNC), Joint Meeting mit der Mexikanischen und Kolumbianischen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie; 20180603-20180606; Münster; DOCV309 /20180618/
    Publication Date: 2018-06-19
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Keywords: Key words Membrane cofactor protein ; Testis ; Chromosome 1 ; Complement ; Alternative splicing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Human membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46) is widely distributed and is one of the plasma membrane complement inhibitors. We isolated cDNA clones encoding genetic homologues of human MCP from a rat testis cDNA library. Northern blot analysis indicated that rat MCP is preferentially expressed in testis, similar to what is found with guinea pig MCP. We identified several different cDNAs, which were presumably generated by alternative splicing from a single-copy gene. The most prevalent isoform corresponded to the Ser/Thr/Pro-rich C type of human MCP. Mouse MCP cDNA was cloned by polymerase chain reaction based on the nucleotide sequence of rat MCP. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 77.8% identity to rat MCP. Mouse MCP was also preferentially expressed in testis. Unique expression in testis in rat and mouse as well as guinea pig suggests that MCPs in these species not only act as complement regulatory proteins but may also have more specialized functions in fertilization or reproduction. Genetic mapping by linkage analysis indicated that the mouse Mcp gene is located on distal chromosome 1, closely linked to the complement receptor 2 (Cr2) gene.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Keywords: Key words Complement ; Decay-accelerating factor ; Repetitive sequence ; Gene structure ; Serine/threonine-rich region
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) protects cells from autologous complement attack on self cell membranes. We have previously reported that the seventh exon encoding the serine/threonine-rich(S/T)-abc region of the guinea pig DAF gene is composed of five homologous repeats of about 51 base pairs, and that differential usage of these repeats produces the various lengths observed in the S/T region of guinea pig DAF. In this study, we found that the seventh intron of the guinea pig DAF gene was wholly composed of 18 tandem repeats homologous to the repeating unit of the S/T-abc exon. This type of repetitive structure, although the number of repeats was variable, was also found in the corresponding exons and introns of all DAF genes of other species so far tested including human and seven other primates and mouse, in which alternative splicing in this region has not been found. This suggested that generation of the repetitive sequences spanning the exon and intron regions had occurred before the diversification of these species. In addition, all the intron sequences of the tested DAF genes had no stop codon when they were presumably translated in the same reading frame as the seventh and eighth exons, except for that of one of two duplicated mouse DAF genes. These findings and significant interspecies identities of the intron sequence suggest that the intron sequence conceivably could be translated in some tissues and/or in some stages of development although to date we have not yet succeeded in detecting mRNA for this region.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  Mutations in the fusion, F, protein of Sendai virus resulting in increased cleavability by ubiquitous host protease(s), and mutations in the matrix, M, protein resulting in bipolar budding, are both important determinants for the systemic infection in mice caused by the protease activating pantropic mutant, F1-R. Several mutants of Sendai virus (BY, BF, and KD-M) with phenotypes of bipolar budding and/or increased cleavability of F protein were isolated. Genomic RNA sequence analysis of the F and M genes of the mutants revealed that several deduced amino acids in the F and M proteins were different from those of F1-R, T-5 (a revertant of F1-R), and wild-type viruses. The BF and KD-M mutants that budded bipolarly and were also activated by ubiquitous proteases were examined for replication in tissue culture cells and in mice. All of the mutants exhibited multiple-step replication in MDCK, MDBK, and LLC-MK2 cells without trypsin, but formed plaques only in MDCK cells. One of the mutants, designated KD-52M, was similar to F1-R in that it formed plaques in all three cell lines without addition of exogenous protease. However, none of the mutant viruses, including KD-52M, caused a systemic infection in mice. The mutated M protein of F1-R enhances the disruption of microtubles. However, none of the mutants with a bipolar budding phenotype (BY, BF, and KD-M), disrupted the microtubules to the same extent as F1-R. All of these mutants had mutations in the M protein that were different from those found in F1-R. Taken together, these results suggest that mutations at Ser115 to Pro in the F protein and at Asp 128 to Gly and Ile210 to Thr in the M protein of F1-R are the mutations specifically required for the systemic infection caused by F1-R.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  Infection with measles virus induces a transient immunosuppression, which occasionally results in fatal opportunistic infections. To obtain fundamental information about the mechanism, we examined peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from acute measles patients aged from infants to 35 years old, obtained at various times from incubation periods to 103 days after onset of rash, for the number of lymphocyte subsets by flowcytometry. The data were analyzed for relationships between aging of the patients and the severity of immunosuppression. In classical measles cases, infected lymphocytes detected as a minor pupulation during the incubation period disappeared soon after onset of rash, whereas in the cases of serious illness, the infected cells persisted longer after the rash. At the onset of rash, remarkable lymphopenia had already occurred in all measles cases with reduction in cell numbers of CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, B cells, neutrophils, and monocytes. In contrast, natural killer (NK) cells were increased in number and activated, which might be a response compensatory for the lymphopenia. Apoptosis-associated molecules such as CD95(Fas) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-receptor (TRAIL-R) were highly expressed on the cell surface of most surviving non-infected lymphocytes, and DNA fragmentation was also observed upon incubation in vitro. These results suggested that the profound lymphopenia was primarily due to extended death of non-infected blood cells caused by apoptosis. The severity and duration of the lumphopenia were age-dependent; less severe in young children whereas much severer in infants under one year of age as well as adolescents and adults. From these results, it was suggested that remarkable lymphopenia due to apoptosis of uninfected cells is one of the principal causes for immunosuppression induced by measles virus infection, and is correlated with the age-dependent severity of the disease.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Porphyromonas gingivalis ; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ; C3H/HeJ mice ; B-cells ; protein phosphorylation ; cytokine production
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Porphyromonas gingivalis 381 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) definitely exhibited mitogenic activity in purified B-cells, separated from spleens of LPS-responsive C3H/HeN mice and LPS-non-responsive C3H/HeJ mice by using a magnetic cell sorting system. The mitogenic activity induced byP. gingivalis LPS was incompletely inhibited by polymyxin B.P. gingivalis LPS also induced a higher production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in splenic B-cells of C3H/HeN mice as compared withEscherichia coli LPS. Furthermore,P. gingivalis LPS, but notE. coli LPS, induced definite IL-6 production in C3H/HeJ mice.P. gingivalis LPS increased tyrosine, serine/threonine phosphorylation of proteins with various major induced bands in splenic B-cells of both C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice. Additionally, radioiodinatedP. gingivalis LPS, similarly toE. coli LPS, bound to a 73-kDa protein on C3H/HeJ as well as C3H/HeN B-cells. ThusP. gingivalis LPS may activate B-cells of C3H/HeJ as well as C3H/HeN mice via the LPS-specific binding protein on the cells.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  In an attempt to clarify the function of lactose in cellulase induction, experiments were carried out on cellulase formation by lactose along with other sugars in a resting cell system of Trichoderma reesei PC-3-7, a hypercellulase-producing mutant. Although lactose alone induces little cellulase under the conditions used, a synergistic effect on cellulase formation was observed following the respective addition of sophorose, cellobiose or galactose to lactose. The lactose consumption was more rapid when these sugars were added than in their absence. Furthermore, following lactose addition 10 h after the beginning of cultivation in the presence of cellobiose, cellulase formation was initiated with only a little lag, and lactose consumption started immediately, being complete in 14 h. β-Galactosidase induction experiments suggested that the rapid consumption of lactose is possibly not dependent on lactose degradation by the enzyme. From these results, it is suggested that lactose may function as an inducer for cellulase formation if it is taken up in the mycelium of T. reesei PC-3-7, and that sophorose, cellobiose or galactose may induce a putative lactose permease.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract In an attempt to clarify the function of lactose in cellulase induction, experiments were carried out on cellulase formation by lactose along with other sugars in a resting cell system of Trichoderma reesei PC-3-7, a hypercellulase-producing mutant. Although lactose alone induces little cellulase under the conditions used, a synergistic effect on cellulase formation was observed following the respective addition of sophorose, cellobiose or galactose to lactose. The lactose consumption was more rapid when these sugars were added than in their absence. Furthermore, following lactose addition 10 h after the beginning of cultivation in the presence of cellobiose, cellulase formation was initiated with only a little lag, and lactose consumption started immediately, being complete in 14 h. \-Galactosidase induction experiments suggested that the rapid consumption of lactose is possibly not dependent on lactose degradation by the enzyme. From these results, it is suggested that lactose may function as an inducer for cellulase formation if it is taken up in the mycelium of T. reesei PC-3-7, and that sophorose, cellobiose or galactose may induce a putative lactose permease. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** AG903066 00005
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A third xylanase (Xyn III) from Trichoderma reesei PC-3–7 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatographies. The enzyme had a molecular mass of 32 kDa, and its isoelectric point was 9.1. The pH optimum of Xyn III was 6.0, similar to that of Xyn II, another basic xylanase of  T. reesei. The purified Xyn III showed high activity with birchwood xylan but no activity with cellulose and aryl glycoside. The hydrolysis of birchwood xylan by Xyn III produced mainly xylobiose, xylotriose and other xylooligosaccharides. The amino acid sequences of the N-terminus and internal peptides of Xyn III exhibited high homology with the family F xylanases, showing that they were distinct from those of Xyn I and Xyn II of  T. reesei, which belong to family G. These results reveal that Xyn III is a new specific endoxylanase, differing from Xyn I and Xyn II in  T. reesei. It is noteworthy that this novel xylanase was induced only by cellulosic substrates and l-sorbose but not by xylan and its derivarives. Furthermore,  T. reesei PC-3-7 produced Xyn III in quantity when grown on Avicel or lactose as a carbon source, while  T. reesei QM9414 produced little or no Xyn III.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A cbh2 cDNA encoding Trichoderma reesei QM9414 cellobiohydrolase II, located on the expression vector whose copy number is controlled by the level of gentamicin, was successfully expressed under the control of a human cytomegalovirus promoter in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The 24-amino-acid leader peptide of the cbh2 gene was recognized by the yeast, enabling the efficient secretion of the heterologous cellobiohydrolase. The transformed S. pombe strain produced over 115 μg cellobiohydrolase proteins/ml rich medium supplemented with malt extract and 100 μg/ml gentamicin. The molecular masses of the recombinant cellobiohydrolases, secreted as two molecular species, were estimated to be 70 kDa and 72 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Deglycosylation treatments revealed that the recombinant enzymes were overglycosylated and scarcely susceptible to α-mannosidase. The recombinant enzymes showed no carboxymethylcellulase activity, but showed similar characteristics to those of a native enzyme purified from T. reesei in their optimum pH and temperature, pH and temperature stabilities, and V max values toward phosphoric-acid-swollen cellulose as substrate, except that their K m values were about fourfold higher than that of the native enzyme.
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