IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1156: ETS Exposure and PAH Body Burden in Nonsmoking Italian Adults International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15061156 Authors: Laura Campo Elisa Polledri Petra Bechtold Giulia Gatti Giulia Quattrini Luca Olgiati Michael Romolo Andrea Ranzi Paolo Lauriola Giuliano Carrozzi Silvia Fustinoni Active smoking is associated with increased body burden of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); the aim of this study was to assess whether environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) increases the internal dose of PAHs. In 344 nonsmoking Italian adults, out of 497 individuals selected as representative of the population of the town of Modena, ETS exposure was evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire and by the measurement of urinary cotinine (COT-U). PAH exposure was assessed by the measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPYR) and of ten urinary PAHs. In all subjects, median (5th&ndash;95th percentile) COT-U was 0.47 (&lt;0.1&ndash;3.91) &micro;g/L. While 58 subjects reported to be ETS exposed (ETSQUEST), 38 individuals were identified as ETS exposed on the basis of a COT-U value of 1.78 (90% confidence interval 1.75&ndash;1.80) &micro;g/L, previously derived as an upper reference value in not ETS exposed Italian adults (ETSCOT). Median COT-U levels were 1.38 (&lt;0.1&ndash;9.06) and 3.63 (1.80&ndash;17.39) &micro;g/L in ETSQUEST and in ETSCOT subjects, respectively. Significant correlations between COT-U and 1-OHPYR, and urinary anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene were found among all subjects. Significantly higher levels of 1-OHPYR, and urinary fluorene, anthracene, and pyrene were found in ETSCOT individuals. The results of multiple linear regression analyses, taking into consideration diet and other sources of PAHs exposures such as the residence area/characteristics and traffic, confirmed that 1-OHPYR and urinary fluorene were affected by ETS exposure, even if ETS played a minor role.
Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering