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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1922: The Impact of Innovative Smoking Reduction Education at Hospital Entrances: A Prospective Pre- and Post-Test Study Design International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15091922 Authors: Tusi-Ping Chu Min-Li Chen Yu-Chen Lin Mei-Yen Chen Background: Nurses are expected to play an important role in smoking reduction education. Although the smoking ban was enacted in Taiwan in 1997, which included the introduction of smoking-free areas around the entrances of hospitals, many smokers are still found near hospitals. Few smoking reduction programs have been initiated around hospital entrances. The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of an innovative smoking reduction education program, which was conducted by nursing students around the entrances of a teaching hospital. Methods: A prospective pre- and post-test study design was used. The smoking reduction education program consisted of posters, audio broadcasts, and dramatic performances that provided information and resources related to smoking reduction. Outcome variables included the number of smokers, number of cigarette butts on the ground, and the experiences from nursing students after conducting the program. Results: After adjusting for weather and temperature, the number of smokers decreased significantly in the afternoon and during the whole day after the implementation of the program. The number of cigarette butts significantly decreased during the implementation of the program. Conclusion: The findings reveal that alternative smoking reduction programs initiated around hospital entrances significantly reduced both the number of smokers and cigarette butts on the ground. Nursing students shared their positive experiences in conducting this study.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-26
    Description: Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 44: Studying Semi-TCP and Its Application in Marine Internet Future Internet doi: 10.3390/fi10060044 Authors: Liang Zhou Sheng-Ming Jiang Chen-Lin Xiong TCP protocol has good performance on the Internet, but its performance is significantly reduced when it is applied to Marine Internet (MI). How to improve the performance of TCP protocol in Marine Internet has become an important research topic. In this paper, an improved Semi-TCP is adopted for Marine Internet, and the implementation scheme of Semi-TCP congestion control is introduced. The exposed terminal problem and congestion control problem of high load networks are analyzed in detail. By using a timer, the congestion control algorithm is improved. Performance analysis and comparison of TCP-Lite, Semi-TCP-RTS, and improved Semi-TCP (Semi-TCP-RTS-V2) are carried out on Exata simulation platform, and the experimental results show that Semi-TCP-RTS-V2 has better transmission performance in ship ad hoc networks.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-5903
    Topics: Computer Science
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1654: Fabrication of Surfactant-Enhanced Metal Oxides Catalyst for Catalytic Ozonation Ammonia in Water International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15081654 Authors: Yunnen Chen Lin Guo Chang Li The new surfactant-enhanced metal oxides composite catalysts have been prepared using solid state method and characterized by the N2-adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Catalytic activity of the synthesized powders has been investigated in the liquid-phase catalytic ozonation ammonia nitrogen (NH4+) (50 mg/L). Especially, the effect of parameters such as optimum molar ratio for metal salt, NaOH and surfactants, temperature, and time of calcinations was also considered. Leveraging both high catalytic activity in NH4+degradation and more harmless selectivity for gaseous nitrogen, the CTAB/NiO catalyst is the best among 24 tested catalysts, which was generated by calcining NiCl2·6H2O, NaOH, and CTAB under the molar ratio 1:2.1:0.155 at 300 °C for 2 h. With CTAB/NiO, NH4+ removal rate was 95.93% and gaseous nitrogen selectivity was 80.98%, under the conditions of a pH of 9, ozone flow of 12 mg/min, dosage of catalyst 1.0 g/L, reaction time 120 min, and magnetic stirring speed 600 r/min in room temperature.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Algorithms, Vol. 11, Pages 27: Spectrum Allocation Based on an Improved Gravitational Search Algorithm Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a11030027 Authors: Liping Liu Ning Wang Zhigang Chen Lin Guo In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), improving system utility and ensuring system fairness are two important issues. In this paper, we propose a spectrum allocation model to construct CRNs based on graph coloring theory, which contains three classes of matrices: available matrix, utility matrix, and interference matrix. Based on the model, we formulate a system objective function by jointly considering two features: system utility and system fairness. Based on the proposed model and the objective problem, we develop an improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA) from two aspects: first, we introduce the pattern search algorithm (PSA) to improve the global optimization ability of the original gravitational search algorithm (GSA); second, we design the Chebyshev chaotic sequences to enhance the convergence speed and precision of the algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves better performance than traditional methods in spectrum allocation.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4893
    Topics: Computer Science
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-14
    Description: Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 47: Data Hiding Based on a Two-Layer Turtle Shell Matrix Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10020047 Authors: Xiao-Zhu Xie Chia-Chen Lin Chin-Chen Chang Data hiding is a technology that embeds data into a cover carrier in an imperceptible way while still allowing the hidden data to be extracted accurately from the stego-carrier, which is one important branch of computer science and has drawn attention of scholars in the last decade. Turtle shell-based (TSB) schemes have become popular in recent years due to their higher embedding capacity (EC) and better visual quality of the stego-image than most of the none magic matrices based (MMB) schemes. This paper proposes a two-layer turtle shell matrix-based (TTSMB) scheme for data hiding, in which an extra attribute presented by a 4-ary digit is assigned to each element of the turtle shell matrix with symmetrical distribution. Therefore, compared with the original TSB scheme, two more bits are embedded into each pixel pair to obtain a higher EC up to 2.5 bits per pixel (bpp). The experimental results reveal that under the condition of the same visual quality, the EC of the proposed scheme outperforms state-of-the-art data hiding schemes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-8994
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: Algorithms, Vol. 11, Pages 14: An Optimal Online Resource Allocation Algorithm for Energy Harvesting Body Area Networks Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a11020014 Authors: Guangyuan Wu Zhigang Chen Lin Guo Jia Wu In Body Area Networks (BANs), how to achieve energy management to extend the lifetime of the body area networks system is one of the most critical problems. In this paper, we design a body area network system powered by renewable energy, in which the sensors carried by patient with energy harvesting module can transmit data to a personal device. We do not require any a priori knowledge of the stochastic nature of energy harvesting and energy consumption. We formulate a user utility optimization problem. We use Lyapunov Optimization techniques to decompose the problem into three sub-problems, i.e., battery management, collecting rate control and transmission power allocation. We propose an online resource allocation algorithm to achieve two major goals: (1) balancing sensors’ energy harvesting and energy consumption while stabilizing the BANs system; and (2) maximizing the user utility. Performance analysis addresses required battery capacity, bounded data queue length and optimality of the proposed algorithm. Simulation results verify the optimization of algorithm.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4893
    Topics: Computer Science
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: Algorithms, Vol. 11, Pages 16: A Novel Spectrum Scheduling Scheme with Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a11020016 Authors: Liping Liu Ning Wang Zhigang Chen Lin Guo Cognitive radio is a promising technology for improving spectrum utilization, which allows cognitive users access to the licensed spectrum while primary users are absent. In this paper, we design a resource allocation framework based on graph theory for spectrum assignment in cognitive radio networks. The framework takes into account the constraints that interference for primary users and possible collision among cognitive users. Based on the proposed model, we formulate a system utility function to maximize the system benefit. Based on the proposed model and objective problem, we design an improved ant colony optimization algorithm (IACO) from two aspects: first, we introduce differential evolution (DE) process to accelerate convergence speed by monitoring mechanism; then we design a variable neighborhood search (VNS) process to avoid the algorithm falling into the local optimal. Simulation results demonstrate that the improved algorithm achieves better performance.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4893
    Topics: Computer Science
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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