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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-01
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2876: Automatic Outcome in Manual Dexterity Assessment Using Colour Segmentation and Nearest Neighbour Classifier Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18092876 Authors: Edwin Daniel Oña Patricia Sánchez-Herrera Alicia Cuesta-Gómez Santiago Martinez Alberto Jardón Carlos Balaguer Objective assessment of motor function is an important component to evaluating the effectiveness of a rehabilitation process. Such assessments are carried out by clinicians using traditional tests and scales. The Box and Blocks Test (BBT) is one such scale, focusing on manual dexterity evaluation. The score is the maximum number of cubes that a person is able to displace during a time window. In a previous paper, an automated version of the Box and Blocks Test using a Microsoft Kinect sensor was presented, and referred to as the Automated Box and Blocks Test (ABBT). In this paper, the feasibility of ABBT as an automated tool for manual dexterity assessment is discussed. An algorithm, based on image segmentation in CIELab colour space and the Nearest Neighbour (NN) rule, was developed to improve the reliability of automatic cube counting. A pilot study was conducted to assess the hand motor function in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Three functional assessments were carried out. The success rate in automatic cube counting was studied by comparing the manual (BBT) and the automatic (ABBT) methods. The additional information provided by the ABBT was analysed to discuss its clinical significance. The results show a high correlation between manual (BBT) and automatic (ABBT) scoring. The lowest average success rate in cube counting for ABBT was 92%. Additionally, the ABBT acquires extra information from the cubes’ displacement, such as the average velocity and the time instants in which the cube was detected. The analysis of this information can be related to indicators of health status (coordination and dexterity). The results showed that the ABBT is a useful tool for automating the assessment of unilateral gross manual dexterity, and provides additional information about the user’s performance.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 865: Energy Optimization Using a Case-Based Reasoning Strategy Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030865 Authors: Alfonso González-Briones Javier Prieto Fernando De La Prieta Enrique Herrera-Viedma Juan Corchado At present, the domotization of homes and public buildings is becoming increasingly popular. Domotization is most commonly applied to the field of energy management, since it gives the possibility of managing the consumption of the devices connected to the electric network, the way in which the users interact with these devices, as well as other external factors that influence consumption. In buildings, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems have the highest consumption rates. The systems proposed so far have not succeeded in optimizing the energy consumption associated with a HVAC system because they do not monitor all the variables involved in electricity consumption. For this reason, this article presents an agent approach that benefits from the advantages provided by a Multi-Agent architecture (MAS) deployed in a Cloud environment with a wireless sensor network (WSN) in order to achieve energy savings. The agents of the MAS learn social behavior thanks to the collection of data and the use of an artificial neural network (ANN). The proposed system has been assessed in an office building achieving an average energy savings of 41% in the experimental group offices.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-18
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 777: An Intuitionistic Multiplicative ORESTE Method for Patients’ Prioritization of Hospitalization International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040777 Authors: Cheng Zhang Xingli Wu Di Wu Huchang Liao Li Luo Enrique Herrera-Viedma The tension brought about by sickbeds is a common and intractable issue in public hospitals in China due to the large population. Assigning the order of hospitalization of patients is difficult because of complex patient information such as disease type, emergency degree, and severity. It is critical to rank the patients taking full account of various factors. However, most of the evaluation criteria for hospitalization are qualitative, and the classical ranking method cannot derive the detailed relations between patients based on these criteria. Motivated by this, a comprehensive multiple criteria decision making method named the intuitionistic multiplicative ORESTE (organísation, rangement et Synthèse dedonnées relarionnelles, in French) was proposed to handle the problem. The subjective and objective weights of criteria were considered in the proposed method. To do so, first, considering the vagueness of human perceptions towards the alternatives, an intuitionistic multiplicative preference relation model is applied to represent the experts’ preferences over the pairwise alternatives with respect to the predetermined criteria. Then, a correlation coefficient-based weight determining method is developed to derive the objective weights of criteria. This method can overcome the biased results caused by highly-related criteria. Afterwards, we improved the general ranking method, ORESTE, by introducing a new score function which considers both the subjective and objective weights of criteria. An intuitionistic multiplicative ORESTE method was then developed and further highlighted by a case study concerning the patients’ prioritization.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-28
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1369: Displacements Study of an Earth Fill Dam Based on High Precision Geodetic Monitoring and Numerical Modeling Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051369 Authors: Luis Enrique Acosta M. Clara de Lacy M. Isabel Ramos Juan Pedro Cano Antonio Manuel Herrera Manuel Avilés Antonio José Gil The aim of this paper is to study the behavior of an earth fill dam, analyzing the deformations determined by high precision geodetic techniques and those obtained by the Finite Element Method (FEM). A large number of control points were established around the area of the dam, and the measurements of their displacements took place during several periods. In this study, high-precision leveling and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) techniques were used to monitor vertical and horizontal displacements respectively. Seven surveys were carried out: February and July 2008, March and July 2013, August 2014, September 2015 and September 2016. Deformations were predicted, taking into account the general characteristics of an earth fill dam. A comparative evaluation of the results derived from predicted (FEM) and observed deformations shows the differences on average being 20 cm for vertical displacements, and 6 cm for horizontal displacements at the crest. These differences are probably due to the simplifications assumed during the FEM modeling process: critical sections are considered homogeneous along their longitude, and the properties of the materials were established according to the general characteristics of an earth fill dam. These characteristics were taken from the normative and similar studies in the country. This could also be due to the geodetic control points being anchored in the superficial layer of the slope when the construction of the dam was finished.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-10
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2202: On-Device Learning of Indoor Location for WiFi Fingerprint Approach Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18072202 Authors: Marco Aurelio Nuño-Maganda Hiram Herrera-Rivas Cesar Torres-Huitzil Heidy Marisol Marín-Castro Yuriria Coronado-Pérez Indoor positioning is a recent technology that has gained interest in industry and academia thanks to the promising results of locating objects, people or robots accurately in indoor environments. One of the utilized technologies is based on algorithms that process the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) in order to infer location information without previous knowledge of the distribution of the Access Points (APs) in the area of interest. This paper presents the design and implementation of an indoor positioning mobile application, which allows users to capture and build their own RSSI maps by off-line training of a set of selected classifiers and using the models generated to obtain the current indoor location of the target device. In an early experimental and design stage, 59 classifiers were evaluated, using data from proposed indoor scenarios. Then, from the tested classifiers in the early stage, only the top-five classifiers were integrated with the proposed mobile indoor positioning, based on the accuracy obtained for the test scenarios. The proposed indoor application achieves high classification rates, above 89%, for at least 10 different locations in indoor environments, where each location has a minimum separation of 0.5 m.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-23
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 391: Maxwell’s Demon and the Problem of Observers in General Relativity Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050391 Authors: Luis Herrera The fact that real dissipative (entropy producing) processes may be detected by non-comoving observers (tilted), in systems that appear to be isentropic for comoving observers, in general relativity, is explained in terms of the information theory, analogous with the explanation of the Maxwell’s demon paradox.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-05-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1664: Design of a Novel MEMS Microgripper with Rotatory Electrostatic Comb-Drive Actuators for Biomedical Applications Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051664 Authors: Luis A. Velosa-Moncada Luz Antonio Aguilera-Cortés Max A. González-Palacios Jean-Pierre Raskin Agustin L. Herrera-May Primary tumors of patients can release circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to flow inside of their blood. The CTCs have different mechanical properties in comparison with red and white blood cells, and their detection may be employed to study the efficiency of medical treatments against cancer. We present the design of a novel MEMS microgripper with rotatory electrostatic comb-drive actuators for mechanical properties characterization of cells. The microgripper has a compact structural configuration of four polysilicon layers and a simple performance that control the opening and closing displacements of the microgripper tips. The microgripper has a mobile arm, a fixed arm, two different actuators and two serpentine springs, which are designed based on the SUMMiT V surface micromachining process from Sandia National Laboratories. The proposed microgripper operates at its first rotational resonant frequency and its mobile arm has a controlled displacement of 40 µm at both opening and closing directions using dc and ac bias voltages. Analytical models are developed to predict the stiffness, damping forces and first torsional resonant frequency of the microgripper. In addition, finite element method (FEM) models are obtained to estimate the mechanical behavior of the microgripper. The results of the analytical models agree very well respect to FEM simulations. The microgripper has a first rotational resonant frequency of 463.8 Hz without gripped cell and it can operate up to with maximum dc and ac voltages of 23.4 V and 129.2 V, respectively. Based on the results of the analytical and FEM models about the performance of the proposed microgripper, it could be used as a dispositive for mechanical properties characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs).
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-07-31
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1610: Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Respiratory and Circulatory Morbidity in Colombia 2011–2014: A Multi-City, Time-Series Analysis International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15081610 Authors: Laura Andrea Rodríguez-Villamizar Néstor Yezid Rojas-Roa Luis Camilo Blanco-Becerra Víctor Mauricio Herrera-Galindo Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño Few studies have been conducted on the effect of air pollution on morbidity in Latin America. This study analyzed the effects of air pollution on respiratory and circulatory morbidity in four major cities in Colombia. An ecological time-series analysis was conducted with pollution data from air quality monitoring networks and information on emergency department visits between 2011 and 2014. Daily 24-h averages were calculated for NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and SO2 as well as 8-h averages for CO and O3. Separate time-series were constructed by disease group and pollutant. Conditional negative binomial regression models were used with average population effects. Effects were calculated for the same day and were adjusted for weather conditions, age groups, and their interactions. The results showed that effects of some of the pollutants differed among the cities. For NO2, PM10, and PM2.5, the multi-city models showed greater and statistically significant percentage increases in emergency department visits for respiratory diseases, particularly for the 5 to 9-year-old age group. These same pollutants also significantly affected the rate of emergency department visits for circulatory diseases, especially for the group of persons over 60 years of age.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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